Please wait a minute...
Journal of Arid Land  2017, Vol. 9 Issue (3): 368-378    DOI: 10.1007/s40333-017-0013-7
Orginal Article     
Effects of vegetation patterns and environmental factors on woody regeneration in semi-arid oak-dominated forests of western Iran
JAVAD Mirzaei1, MEHDI Heydari1,*(), PREVOSTO Bernard2
1 Department of Forest Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ilam, Ilam 69315-516, Iran
2 Irstea, UR Ecosystèmes Méditerranéens et Risques, 3275 route de Cézanne, CS 40061, F-13612 Aix-en Provence Cedex 5,France
Download: HTML     PDF(375KB)
Export: BibTeX | EndNote (RIS)      

Abstract  

This study assesses the effects of vegetation patterns and environmental factors on the abundance of natural tree and shrub regeneration in semi-arid forests of the Zagros Mountains, western Iran. We sampled 120 releves at different topographic positions in a protected area of the studied region. Floristic composition, slope, elevation and soil properties were recorded at each releve, and woody seedling density was measured. We have first discerned five floristic groups using two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN), detrended correspondence analysis (DCA), and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) and then explored the relationships among the floristic group compositions, environmental factors and seedling densities. The indicator species of the five groups were Quercus brantii, Acer monspessulanum, Cerasus microcarpa, Rhamnus arvensis and Astragalus licyoides. Our results indicated that these groups were significantly affected by elevation and soil properties and the soil properties refer to: EC (electrical conductivity), N (nitrogen), K (potassium), OM (organic matter), and bulk density. Woody regeneration was composed of Q. brantii, A. monspessulanum, C. microcarpa, Amygdalus scoparia and Crataegus pontica seedlings. The highest density of seedlings was found for Q. brantii (97.14 (±48.00) plants/hm2) and the lowest for A. scoparia (2.28 (±1.50) plants/hm2). Quercus brantii was the dominant species and the seedling density was positively correlated with soil pH and P (phosphorus) values. Amygdalus scoparia regeneration was negatively correlated with elevation, and the seedling density peaked in C. microcarpa group. There was no significant variation in distribution of C. pontica seedlings among the groups, but the seedling density of this species was positively correlated with slope and K. Cerasus microcarpa seedlings were more abundant in the Q. brantii group than in other groups. This study showed that the regeneration of tree and shrub species was unequally distributed in different floristic groups for some species (A. scoparia and C. microcarpa) but not for other (Q. brantii and C. pontica) and was generally correlated with some environmental factors, particularly elevation, slope and soil nutrients (P and K). These results are a first step to implement future management and restoration strategies for promoting forest regeneration.



Key wordsabiotic factors      community classification      Zagros Mountains      natural regeneration     
Received: 04 June 2016      Published: 10 May 2017
Corresponding Authors: MEHDI Heydari     E-mail: M_heydari23@yahoo.com
Cite this article:

JAVAD Mirzaei, MEHDI Heydari, PREVOSTO Bernard. Effects of vegetation patterns and environmental factors on woody regeneration in semi-arid oak-dominated forests of western Iran. Journal of Arid Land, 2017, 9(3): 368-378.

URL:

http://jal.xjegi.com/10.1007/s40333-017-0013-7     OR     http://jal.xjegi.com/Y2017/V9/I3/368

[1] Adel M N, Pourbabaei H, Dey C D.2014. Ecological species group—environmental factors relationships in unharvested beech forests in the north of Iran. Ecological Engineering, 69: 1-7.
[2] Basiri R.2011. Cover percentage study of Quercus libani Oliv. In relation to elements distribution in soils using geostatistic methods in Sardasht, West Azarbaijan, Iran. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 8(1): 114-124.
[3] Bradbury I K, Malcolm D C.1977. The effect of phosphorus and potassium on transpiration, leaf diffusive resistance and water-use efficiency in Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) seedlings. Journal of Applied Ecology, 14(2): 631-641.
[4] Bremner J M.1996. Nitrogen total. In: Sparks D L. Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 3—Chemical Methods.SSSA Book Series 5. Madison: Soil Science Society of America, 1085-1122.
[5] Darvishnia H, Dehghani K M, Forghani A H, et al.2012. Study and introducing of flora of the protected area of Manesht and Qalarang in Ilam province. Journal of Taxonomy and Biosistematics, 4(11): 47-60.
[6] Dickie I A, Montgomery R A, Reich P B, et al.2007. Physiological and phenological responses of oak seedlings to oak forest soil in the absence of trees. Tree Physiology, 27(1): 133-140.
[7] Ghazanfari H, Namiranian M, Sobhani H, et al.2004. Traditional forest management and its application to encourage public participation for sustainable forest management in the northern Zagros mountains of Kurdistan province, Iran. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 19(Suppl. 4): 65-71.
[8] Gómez-Aparicio L, Gómez J M, Zamora R.2005. Microhabitats shift rank in suitability for seedling establishment depending on habitat type and climate. Journal of Ecology, 93(6): 1194-1202.
[9] Gómez-Aparicio L, Pérez-Ramos I M, Mendoza I, et al.2008. Oak seedling survival and growth along resource gradients in Mediterranean forests: implications for regeneration in current and future environmental scenarios. Oikos, 117(11): 1683-1699.
[10] Hattori D, Kenzo T, Irino K O, et al.2013. Effects of soil compaction on the growth and mortality of planted dipterocarp seedlings in a logged-over tropical rainforest in Sarawak, Malaysia. Forest Ecology and Management, 310: 770-776.
[11] Heydari M, Faramarzi M, Pothier D.2016. Post-fire recovery of herbaceous species composition and diversity,and soil quality1)indicators one year after wildfire in a semi-arid oak woodland. Ecological Engineering, 94: 688-697.
[12] Hill M O.1979. TWINSPAN-a FORTRAN Program for Arranging Multivariate Data in an Ordered Two-way Table by Classification of the Individuals and Attributes. New York: Cornell University Press, 95.
[13] Hill M O, Gauch H G Jr.1980. Detrended correspondence analysis: an improved ordination technique. Vegetatio, 42(1-3): 47-58.
[14] Host G E, Pregitzer K S.1991. Ecological species groups for upland forest ecosystems of northwestern lower Michigan. Forest Ecology and Management, 43(1-2): 87-102.
[15] Ibá?ez B, Ibá?ez I, Gómez-Aparicio L, et al.2014. Contrasting effects of climate change along life stages of a dominant tree species: the importance of soil-climate interactions. Diversity and Distributions, 20(8): 872-883.
[16] Jazirehi M H, Ebrahimi R M.2003. Silviculture in Zagros. Tehran: University of Tehran Press.
[17] Kabrick J M, Dey D C, Van Sambeek J W, et al.2005. Soil properties and growth of swamp white oak and pin oak on bedded soils in the lower Missouri River floodplain. Forest Ecology and Management, 204(2-3): 315-327.
[18] Kalra Y P, Maynard D G.1991. Methods manual for forest soil and plant analysis. In: Information Report NOR-X-319. Edmonton, AB: Forestry Canada.
[19] Ko DW, Sparrow A D, Weisberg P J.2011. Land-use legacy of historical tree harvesting for charcoal production in a semi-arid woodland. Forest Ecology and Management, 261(7): 1283-1292.
[20] Mahoney J M, Rood S B.1998. Streamflow requirements for cottonwood seedling recruitment-an integrative model. Wetlands, 18(4): 634-645.
[21] Martín-Alcón S, Coll L.2016. Unraveling the relative importance of factors driving post-fire regeneration trajectories in non-serotinous Pinus nigra forests. Forest Ecology and Management, 361: 13-22.
[22] Marvie-Mohadjer M R. 2005. Silviculture. Tehran: University of Tehran Press, 387.
[23] McLean E O. 1982. Soil pH and lime requirement. In: Page A L, Miller R H, Keeney R D. Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2. Chemical and Microbiological Properties.Madison,WI: American Society of Agronomy, SSSA, 199-224.
[24] Mirzaei J, Akbarinia M, Hosseini S M, et al.2007. Comparison of natural regenerated woody species in relation to physiographic and soil factors in Zagros forests (Case study: Arghavan reservoir in north of Ilam province. Pajouhesh & Sazandegi, (77): 16-23.
[25] Mirzaei J.2016. Impacts of two spatially and temporally isolated anthropogenic fire events on soils of oak-dominated Zagros forests of Iran. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 40(1): 109-119.
[26] Mozaffarian V.2008. Flora of Ilam. Tehran: Farhang Moaser Press, 936.
[27] Müller-Dombois D, Ellenberg H.1974. Aims and Methods of Vegetation Ecology. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, 547.
[28] Park A D.2001. Environmental influences on post-harvest natural regeneration in Mexican pine-oak forests. Forest Ecology and Management, 144(1-3): 213-228.
[29] Pascual S, Olarieta J R, Rodríguez-Ochoa R.2012. Development of Quercus ilex plantations is related to soil phosphorus availability on shallow calcareous soils. New Forests, 43(5-6): 805-814.
[30] Peterson C J, Pickett S T A.1990. Microsite and elevational influences on early forest regeneration after catastrophic windthrow. Journal of Vegetation Science, 1(5): 657-662.
[31] Pourhashemi M, Mohajer M R M, Zobeiri M, et al.2004. Identification of forest vegetation units in support of government management objectives in Zagros forests, Iran. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 19(Suppl. 4): 72-77.
[32] Rab M A.1996. Soil physical and hydrological properties following logging and slash burning in the Eucalyptus regnans forest of southeastern Australia. Forest Ecology and Management, 84(1-3): 159-176.
[33] Sagheb-Talebi K, Sajedi T, Yazdian F.2004. Forests of Iran. Tehran: Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands Press, 56.
[34] Salehi A, Karltun L C, S?derberg U, et al.2010. Livelihood dependency on woodland resources in southern Zagros, Iran. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 8(2): 181-194.
[35] Sardans J, Pe?uelas J, Rodà F.2005. Changes in nutrient use efficiency, status and retranslocation in young post-fire regeneration Pinus halepensis in response to sudden N and P input, irrigation and removal of competing vegetation. Trees, 19(3): 233-250.
[36] Sardans J, Rodà F, Pe?uelas J.2006. Effects of a nutrient pulse supply on nutrient status of the Mediterranean trees Quercus ilex subsp. ballota and Pinus halepensis on different soils and under different competitive pressure. Trees, 20(5): 619-632.
[37] Swetnam T W, Allen C D, Betancourt J L.1999. Applied historical ecology: using the past to manage for the future. Ecological Applications, 9(4): 1189-1206.
[38] Taylor J P, Wester D B, Smith L M.1999. Soil disturbance, flood management, and riparian woody plant establishment in the Rio Grande floodplain. Wetlands, 19(2): 372-382.
[39] Tsitsoni T.1997. Conditions determining natural regeneration after wildfires in the Pinus halepensis (Miller, 1768) forests of Kassandra Peninsula (North Greece). Forest Ecology and Management, 92(1-3): 199-208.
[40] van Mantgem P J, Stephenson N L, Keeley J E.2006. Forest reproduction along a climatic gradient in the Sierra Nevada, California. Forest Ecology and Management, 225(1-3): 391-399.
[41] Walkley A, Black I A.1934. An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter, and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science, 37(1): 29-38.
[42] Watanabe F S, Olsen S R.1965. Test of an ascorbic acid method for determining phosphorus in water and NaHCO3 extracts from soil. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 29(6): 677-678.
[43] Zhao Z, Li P, Xue W P, et al.2006. Relation between growth and vertical distribution of fine roots and soil density in the Weibei Loess Plateau. Frontiers of Forestry in China, 1(1): 76-81.
No related articles found!