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Impact of land use change on water resource allocation in the middle reaches of the Heihe River Basin in northwestern China
YanYun NIAN, Xin LI, Jian ZHOU, XiaoLi HU
Journal of Arid Land    2014, 6 (3): 273-286.   DOI: 10.1007/s40333-013-0209-4
Abstract2040)      PDF (1241KB)(3648)      
In recent decades, China has been experiencing rapid economic development, population growth and urbanization. These processes have stressed the shortages of water resources in China, especially in the arid re-gions of northwestern China. In order to sustain the expanding cropland, people increased groundwater exploitation in these regions. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively analyze the changes in land use and water re-sources, and their relationship in the middle reaches of the Heihe River Basin, a typical inland river basin in northwest China. The data of land use change were interpreted using aerial photographs (1965) and Landsat TM images (1986 and 2007). The data of irrigation water volume in the irrigation districts were spatialized in the middle reaches of the Heihe River Basin. The spatial variation of the groundwater depth was interpolated using the geo-statistical method. The results showed that the cultivated cropland area along oasis fringe increased by 15.38% and 43.60% during the periods 1965–1986 and 1986–2007, respectively. Surface water amount for irrigation had almost doubled from 1956 to 2010. The decrease of grassland area mainly occurred at the alluvial fan in front of the Qilian Mountains, with 36.47% during 1965–1986 and 38.56% during 1986–2007, respectively. The groundwater depth in front of the mountain constantly increased from 1986 to 2007. We found that the overuse of surface water and overexploitation of groundwater had direct consequences on the natural environments. We suggests that the efficiency of surface water resources use among different irrigation districts needs to be improved, which will sig-nificantly ease the conflicts between increasing water demand for irrigation and a shortage of water resources in the middle reaches of the Heihe River Basin.
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Cited: Baidu(72)
Scale dependence of plant species richness and vegetation-environment relationship along a gradient of dune stabilization in Horqin Sandy Land, Northern China
XiaoAn ZUO, ShaoKun WANG, XueYong ZHAO, Jie LIAN
Journal of Arid Land    2014, 6 (3): 334-342.   DOI: 10.1007/s40333-013-0221-8
Abstract2134)      PDF (435KB)(2219)      
Ecological patterns and processes in dune ecosystems have been a research focus in recent years, however the information on how dune stabilization influences the spatial scale dependence of plant diversity is still lacking. In this study, we measured the plant species richness, soil properties and altitude across four spatial scales (1, 10, 100 and 1,000 m2) at three different dune stabilization stages (mobile dune, semi-fixed dune and fixed dune) in Horqin Sandy Land, Northern China. We also examined the relationships between plant species richness, community composition and environmental factors along the gradient of dune stabilization. Our results showed that plant species richness increased with the increase of spatial scales in each dune stabilization stage, as well as with the increase of dune stabilization degrees. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) showed that plant distributions in the processes of dune stabilization were determined by the combined environmental gradient in relation to soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), carbon/nitrogen (C/N), pH, electrical conductivity (EC), soil water content (SWC), fine sand (FS), very fine sand (VFS), silt and clay (SC), and altitude. Plant species richness was significantly and positively correlated to SOC and TN in mobile dune, and significantly and positively correlated to SOC, TN, C/N, VFS and SC in semi-fixed dune. However, no significant correlation between plant species richness and environmental factors was observed in fixed dune. In addition, plant species richness in different dune stabilization stages was also determined by the combined gradient of soil properties and altitude. These results suggest that plant species richness has obvious scale dependence along the gradient of dune stabilization. Soil resources depending on dune habitats and environmental gradients caused by dune stabilization are important factors to de-termine the scale dependence of species diversity in sand dune ecosystems.
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Cited: Baidu(33)
Modeling the contribution of abiotic exchange to CO2 flux in alkaline soils of arid areas
WenFeng WANG, Xi CHEN, GePing LUO, LongHui LI
Journal of Arid Land    2014, 6 (1): 27-36.   DOI: 10.1007/s40333-013-0187-6
Abstract1849)      PDF (1605KB)(2281)      
Recent studies on alkaline soils of arid areas suggest a possible contribution of abiotic exchange to soil CO 2 flux (F c). However, both the overall contribution of abiotic CO 2 exchange and its drivers remain unknown. Here we analyzed the environmental variables suggested as possible drivers by previous studies and constructed a function of these variables to model the contribution of abiotic exchange to F c in alkaline soils of arid areas. An automated flux system was employed to measure F c in the Manas River Basin of Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region, China. Soil pH, soil temperature at 0–5 cm (T s), soil volumetric water content at 0–5 cm (θ s) and air temperature at 10 cm above the soil surface (T as) were simultaneously analyzed. Results highlight reduced sensitivity of F c to T s and good prediction of Fc by the model F c=R 10Q 10 (Tas–10)/10+r7q7(pH–7)+λT as+µθ s+e which represents F c as a sum of biotic and abiotic components. This presents an approximate method to quantify the contribution of soil abiotic CO 2 exchange to F c in alkaline soils of arid areas.
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Cited: Baidu(31)
Impact of climate change on the streamflow in the glacierized Chu River Basin, Central Asia
MA Changkun, SUN Lin, LIU Shiyin, SHAO Ming’an, LUO Yi
Journal of Arid Land    2015, 7 (4): 501-513.   DOI: 10.1007/s40333-015-0041-0
Abstract1872)      PDF (401KB)(2118)      
Catchments dominated by meltwater runoff are sensitive to climate change as changes in pre-cipitation and temperature inevitably affect the characteristics of glaciermelt/snowmelt, hydrologic circle and water resources. This study simulated the impact of climate change on the runoff generation and streamflow of Chu River Basin (CRB), a glacierized basin in Central Asia using the enhanced Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The model was calibrated and validated using the measured monthly streamflow data from three discharge gauge stations in CRB for the period 1961–1985 and was subsequently driven by downscaled future climate projections of five Global Circulation Models (GCMs) in Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) under three radiative forcing scenarios (RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). In this study, the period 1966–1995 was used as the baseline period, while 2016–2045 and 2066–2095 as the near-future and far-future period, respectively. As projected, the climate would become warmer and drier under all scenarios in the future, and the future climate would be characterized by larger seasonal and annual variations under higher RCP. A general decreasing trend was identified in the average annual runoff in glacier (–26.6% to –1.0%), snow (–21.4% to +1.1%) and streamflow (–27.7% to –6.6%) for most of the future scenario periods. The projected maximum streamflow in each of the two future scenarios occurred one month earlier than that in the baseline period because of the reduced streamflow in summer months. Results of this study are expected to arouse the serious concern about water resource availability in the headwater region of CRB under the continuously warming climate. Changes in simulated hydrologic outputs underscored the significance of lowering the uncertainties in temperature and precipitation projection.
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Cited: Baidu(28)
Effects of water salinity and N application rate on water- and N-use efficiency of cotton under drip irrigation
Wei MIN, ZhenAn HOU, LiJuan MA, Wen ZHANG, SiBo RU, Jun YE
Journal of Arid Land    2014, 6 (4): 454-467.   DOI: 10.1007/s40333-013-0250-3
Abstract2035)      PDF (244KB)(2440)      
In arid and semi-arid regions, freshwater scarcity and high water salinity are serious and chronic problems for crop production and sustainable agriculture development. We conducted a field experiment to evaluate the effect of irrigation water salinity and nitrogen (N) application rate on soil salinity and cotton yield under drip irrigation during the 2011 and 2012 growing seasons. The experimental design was a 3×4 factorial with three irrigation water salinity levels (0.35, 4.61 and 8.04 dS/m) and four N application rates (0, 240, 360 and 480 kg N/hm 2). Results showed that soil water content increased as the salinity of the irrigation water increased, but decreased as the N application rate increased. Soil salinity increased as the salinity of the irrigation water increased. Specifically, soil salinity measured in 1:5 soil:water extracts was 218% higher in the 4.61 dS/m treatment and 347% higher in the 8.04 dS/m treatment than in the 0.35 dS/m treatment. Nitrogen fertilizer application had relatively little effect on soil salinity, increasing salinity by only 3%–9% compared with the unfertilized treatment. Cotton biomass, cotton yield and evapotranspiration (ET) decreased significantly in both years as the salinity of irrigation water increased, and increased as the N application rate increased regardless of irrigation water salinity; however, the positive effects of N application were reduced when the salinity of the irrigation water was 8.04 dS/m. Water use efficiency (WUE) was significantly higher by 11% in the 0.35 dS/m treatment than in the 8.04 dS/m treatment. There was no significant difference in WUE between the 0.35 dS/m treatment and the 4.61 dS/m treatment. The WUE was also significantly affected by the N application rate. The WUE was highest in the 480 kg N/hm2 treatment, being 31% higher than that in the 0 kg N/hm 2 treatment and 12% higher than that in the 240 kg N/hm2 treatment. There was no significant difference between the 360 and 480 kg N/hm 2 treatments. The N use efficiency (NUE) was significantly lower in the 8.04 dS/m treatment than in either the 4.61 dS/m or the 0.35 dS/m treatment. There was no significant difference in NUE between the latter two treatments. These results suggest that irrigation water with salinity <4.61 dS/m does not have an obvious negative effect on cotton production, WUE or NUE under the experimental conditions. Application of N fertilizer (0–360 kg N/hm 2) could alleviate salt damage, promote cotton growth, and increase both cotton yield and water use efficiency.
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Cited: Baidu(27)
Estimating total nitrogen deposition in agroecosystems in northern China during the wheat cropping season
ChunE HE, XueJun LIU, Christie PETER, Fangmeier ANDREAS, FuSuo ZHANG
Journal of Arid Land    DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1227.2010.00002
Abstract2505)      PDF (148KB)(1433)      
Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has been poorly documented in northern China, an intensive agricultural and industrial region with large emissions of NHx and NOy. To quantify N deposition, total airborne N deposition was determined at three agricultural sites using a manual integrated total nitrogen input (ITNI) system during growth of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) from September 2005 to May 2006. Total estimated N deposition averaged 54.9 and 43.2 kg N/hm2 across the three sites when wheat was grown to flowering and maturing, respectively. The average value was 50.2 kg N/hm2 when ryegrass was the indicator plant. Both indicator species gave similar total airborne N input results. The intermediate level of N supplied resulted in the highest N deposition, and the ratio of N acquired from deposition to total N content of the whole system decreased with increasing N supply to the roots. The contribution of atmospheric N to the total N content of the wheat and ryegrass sand culture systems ranged from 10% to 24%.
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Cited: Baidu(24)
Plantations of native shrub species restore soil microbial diversity in the Horqin Sandy Land, northeastern China
DeMing JIANG, ChengYou CAO, Ying ZHANG, ZhenBo CUI, XiaoShu HAN
Journal of Arid Land    2014, 6 (4): 445-453.   DOI: 10.1007/s40333-013-0205-8
Abstract1962)      PDF (316KB)(1644)      
Caragana microphylla Lam., a leguminous shrub species, plays an important role in revegetation in the degraded ecosystems of the Horqin Sandy Land, northeastern China. Large areas planted with this shrub have been artificially established as sand binders for soil protection, which might change the composition of soil bacterial communities with the development of sand dune stabilization. In this paper, we investigated the diversity and composition of native soil bacterial communities in the C. microphylla plantation for sand fixation using polymerase chain reaction with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) to understand the influence of this plantation on sandy soil ecosystem development. We collected soil samples from plantations with an age sequence of 0, 9, 16, and 26 years, as well as from the natural community, to identify the differences among soil bacterial communities. The result showed that bacterial abundance and community composition in the sandy land were affected by the age of the C. microphylla plantation. Moreover, bacterial diversity decreased with increasing plantation age, and the composition of the bacterial community in the 26-year plantation was similar to that in the natural community. Phylogenetic analysis of bands excised from the DGGE gels showed that members of alpha Proteobacterium,
gamma Proteobacterium, Gemmatimonadetes and Chloroflexi were dominant in the sandy land. The stabilization of moving sand dune and development of sand-fixed plantation resulted in an increase of soil fertility, which could drive the structural evolvement of soil bacterial community, and it needs over 20 years for the soil bacterial community to form a stable structure, similar to the case for the natural vegetation.
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Cited: Baidu(23)
Impact of livelihood diversification of rural households on their ecological footprint in agro-pastoral areas of northern China
HAO Haiguang, ZHANG Jiping, LI Xiubin, ZHANG Huiyuan, ZHANG Qiang
Journal of Arid Land    2015, 7 (5): 653-664.   DOI: 10.1007/s40333-015-0049-5
Abstract1435)      PDF (278KB)(2203)      
 Human-environment relationship is a focus of academic researches and an understanding of the rela-tionship is important for making effective policies and decisions. In this study, based on rural household survey data of Taibus Banner, Duolun county and Zhengxiangbai Banner in the Inner Mongolia autonomous region of China, we identified the impact of livelihood diversification on ecosystems in these agro-pastoral areas by using the ecological footprint theory and methodology together with the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and correlation analysis methods. In 2011, the total ecological footprint of consumption (EFC) was 0.665 g hm2, and the total ecological footprint of production (EFP) was 2.045 g hm2, which was more than three times the EFC. The ecological footprint of arable land consumption (EFAC) accounted for a large proportion of the EFC, and the ecological footprint of grassland production (EFGP) occupied a large proportion of the EFP. Both the ecological footprint of grassland consumption (EFGC) and EFGP had a significant positive correlation with the income, indicating that income was mainly depended on livestock production and the households with higher incomes consumed more livestock prod-ucts. The full-time farming households (FTFHs) had the highest EFP, ecological footprint of arable land production (EFAP), EFGP and EFGC, followed by the part-time farming households (PTFHs) and non-farming households (NFHs), which indicated that part-time farming and non-farming employment reduced the occupancy and con-sumption of rural households on local ecosystems and natural resources to some extent. When farming households engaged in livestock rearing, both the EFAP and EFAC became smaller, while the EFP, EFC, EFGC and EFGP increased significantly. The differences in ecological footprints among different household groups should be taken into account when making ecosystem conservation policies. Encouraging the laborers who have the advantages of participating in non-farming employment to move out of the rural areas and increasing the diversification of liveli-hoods of rural households are important in reducing the environmental pressures and improving the welfare of households in the study area. Moreover, grassland should be utilized more effectively in the future.
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Cited: Baidu(21)
Effects of land-use types on the vertical distribution of fractions of oxidizable organic carbon on the Loess Plateau, China
SUN Caili, XUE Sha, CHAI Zongzheng, ZHANG Chao, LIU Guobin
Journal of Arid Land    2016, 8 (2): 221-231.   DOI:
Abstract1631)      PDF (320KB)(1334)      
The oxidizability of soil organic carbon (SOC) influences soil quality and carbon sequestration. Four fractions of oxidizable organic carbon (very labile (C 1), labile (C 2), less labile (C 3) and non-labile (C 4)) reflect the status and composition of SOC and have implications for the change and retention of SOC. Studies of the fractions of oxidizable organic carbon (OC) have been limited to shallow soil depths and agroecosystems. How these fractions respond at deep soil depths and in other types of land-use is not clear. In this study, we evaluated the vertical distributions of the fractions of oxidizable organic carbon to a soil depth of 5.0 m in 10 land-use types in the Zhifanggou Watershed on the Loess Plateau, China. Along the soil profile, C 1 contents were highly variable in the natural grassland and shrubland I (Caragana microphylla), C 2 and C 4 contents were highly variable in the natural grassland and two terraced croplands, respectively, and C 3 contents varied little. Among the land-use types, natural grassland had the highest C 1 and C 2 contents in the 0–0.4 m layers, followed by shrubland I in the 0–0.1 m layer. Natural grassland had the highest C 4 contents in the 1.0–4.5 m layers. Natural grassland and shrubland I thus contributed to improve the oxidizability of SOC in shallow soil, and the deep soil of natural grassland has a large potential to sequester SOC on the Loess Plateau.
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Cited: Baidu(21)
An estimation method of soil wind erosion in Inner Mongolia of China based on geographic information system and remote sensing
Yi ZHOU, Bing GUO, ShiXin WANG, HePing TAO
Journal of Arid Land    2015, 7 (3): 304-317.   DOI: 10.1007/s40333-015-0122-0
Abstract1757)      PDF (2120KB)(2222)      
Studies of wind erosion based on Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) have not attracted sufficient attention because they are limited by natural and scientific factors. Few studies have been conducted to estimate the intensity of large-scale wind erosion in Inner Mongolia, China. In the present study, a new model based on five factors including the number of snow cover days, soil erodibility, aridity, vegetation index and wind field intensity was developed to quantitatively estimate the amount of wind erosion. The results showed that wind erosion widely existed in Inner Mongolia. It covers an area of approximately 90×10 4 km 2, accounting for 80% of the study region. During 1985–2011, wind erosion has aggravated over the entire region of Inner Mongolia, which was indicated by enlarged zones of erosion at severe, intensive and mild levels. In Inner Mongolia, a distinct spatial differentiation of wind erosion intensity was noted. The distribution of change intensity exhibited a downward trend that decreased from severe increase in the southwest to mild decrease in the northeast of the region. Zones oc-cupied by barren land or sparse vegetation showed the most severe erosion, followed by land occupied by open shrubbery. Grasslands would have the most dramatic potential for changes in the future because these areas showed the largest fluctuation range of change intensity. In addition, a significantly negative relation was noted between change intensity and land slope. The relation between soil type and change intensity differed with the content of CaCO 3 and the surface composition of sandy, loamy and clayey soils with particle sizes of 0–1 cm. The results have certain significance for understanding the mechanism and change process of wind erosion that has occurred during the study period. Therefore, the present study can provide a scientific basis for the prevention and treatment of wind erosion in Inner Mongolia.
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Cited: Baidu(19)
Can soil respiration estimate neglect the contribution of abiotic exchange?
Xi CHEN, WenFeng WANG, GePing LUO, Hui YE
Journal of Arid Land    2014, 6 (2): 129-135.   DOI: 10.1007/s40333-013-0244-1
Abstract1800)      PDF (5086KB)(3047)      
This study examines the hypothesis that soil respiration can always be interpreted purely in terms of biotic processes, neglecting the contribution of abiotic exchange to CO 2 fluxes in alkaline soils of arid areas that characterize 5% of the Earth’s total land surface. Analyses on flux data collected from previous studies suggested reconciling soil respiration as organic (root/microbial respiration) and inorganic (abiotic CO 2 exchange) respiration, whose contributions in the total CO 2 flux were determined by soil alkaline content. On the basis of utilizing meteorological and soil data collected from the Xinjiang and Central Asia Scientific Data Sharing Platform, an incorporated model indicated that inorganic respiration represents almost half of the total CO 2 flux. Neglecting the abiotic module may result in overestimates of soil respiration in arid alkaline lands, which partly explains the long-sought “missing carbon sink”
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Cited: Baidu(15)
Spatio-temporal patterns of satellite-derived grassland vegetation phenology from 1998 to 2012 in Inner Mongolia, China
SHA Zongyao, ZHONG Jialin, BAI Yongfei, TAN Xicheng, Jonathan LI
Journal of Arid Land    2016, 8 (3): 462-477.   DOI: 10.1007/s40333-016-0121-9
Abstract1367)      PDF (444KB)(1379)      
Spatio-temporal variations of vegetation phenology, e.g. start of green-up season (SOS) and end of vegetation season (EOS), serve as important indicators of ecosystems. Routinely processed products from remotely sensed imagery, such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), can be used to map such variations. A remote sensing approach to tracing vegetation phenology was demonstrated here in application to the Inner Mongolia grassland, China. SOS and EOS mapping at regional and vegetation type (meadow steppe, typical steppe, desert steppe and steppe desert) levels using SPOT-VGT NDVI series allows new insights into the grassland ecosystem. The spatial and temporal variability of SOS and EOS during 1998–2012 was highlighted and presented, as were SOS and EOS responses to the monthly climatic fluctuations. Results indicated that SOS and EOS did not exhibit consistent shifts at either regional or vegetation type level; the one exception was the steppe desert, the least productive vegetation cover, which exhibited a progressive earlier SOS and later EOS. Monthly average temperature and precipitation in preseason (February, March and April) imposed most remarkable and negative effects on SOS (except for the non-significant impact of precipitation on that of the meadow steppe), while the climate impact on EOS was found to vary considerably between the vegetation types. Results showed that the spatio-temporal variability of the vegetation phenology of the meadow steppe, typical steppe and desert steppe could be reflected by the monthly thermal and hydrological factors but the progressive earlier SOS and later EOS of the highly degraded steppe desert might be accounted for by non-climate factors only, suggesting that the vegetation growing period in the highly degraded areas of the grassland could be extended possibly by human interventions.
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Cited: Baidu(15)
Reconstructing the annual precipitation variation since 1899 based on tree-ring width in the western Hedong sandy land of Ningxia
YaJun WANG, ShangYu GAO, YuZhen MA, RuiJie LU, YanLi SANG, HongWei MENG
Journal of Arid Land    DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1227.2010.00286
Abstract2387)      PDF (366KB)(2306)      
Based on the analysis of the correlation between the tree-ring width of Pinus tabulaeformis and the climate factors in the western Hedong sandy land of Ningxia, a conversion equation between the annual precipitation and the tree-ring width since 1899 was reconstructed. The results of cross verification indicated that the conversion equation is stable and the reconstructed results are reliable. The result of reconstructed annual precipitation showed the remarkable fluctuation of precipitation and dry-to-wet variation before the 1940s. The smaller fluctuation and high frequent changes of precipitation occurred during the period of 1940s-1980s and after the 1980s the change trend of the precipitation became high periodic extent and low frequent. The study found that there were some coincidences with the climate change in Changling Mountains, Helan Mountains and the east of Qilian Mountains. The relatively dry periods in the beginning of 20th century, 1920s to 1930s, the end of the 20th century and 2004 to 2006 in the western Hedong sandy land of Ningxia accelerated the desertification, while the relatively humid period during the periods of the 1910s-1920s, 1930s-1940s and 1990s is favorable to prevent and control the desertification, and to weaken the climate warming and drying. The periods of annual precipitation variation in the western Hedong sandy land of Ningxia since 1899 are approximately 2-4 years, 5-7 years and 10 years.
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Cited: Baidu(14)
Periodical characteristics of baseflow in the source region of the Yangtze River
KaiZhu QIAN, Li WAN, XuSheng WANG, JingJing LV, SiHai LIANG
Journal of Arid Land    2012, 4 (2): 113-122.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1227.2012.00113
Abstract3101)      PDF (2218KB)(2821)      
Baseflow, which represents the drainage of groundwater aquifers, is an essential component of runoff in hydrological basins. In the source region of the Yangtze River, the change of baseflow typically reflects the interactions between groundwater system and climatic factors in cold and arid areas. With modified Kalinen separation method, annual baseflow between 1957 and 2009 in this region was estimated and calculated. In comparison with the inner-annual variations of total streamflow, baseflow showed a weaker fluctuation. Before the 1980s, it was in a steady state; and after then, it demonstrated dramatic variations and large amplitudes. Based on the calculation results of baseflow, the real Morlet wavelet method was applied to reveal the periodical characteristics of baseflow as well as the precipitation and air temperature in the study area. It was found that annual baseflow has a 43-year trend as well as a 21-year period and a 7-year period. The 21-year period is most significant, with its wavelet coef-ficient having the largest fluctuation and amplitude. Summation of wavelet coefficients on these periods exhibits a similar change pattern with respect to that of annual baseflow. The summation curve takes a “W” shape, which means that the baseflow follows a four-stage sequence of descending–ascending–descending–ascending. As analyzed, the relationship among baseflow, precipitation and temperature is implied in the correlation between their normalized wavelet coefficients at different temporal scales. By the significant positive linear correlations both between precipitation and baseflow (correlation coefficient is 0.98) and between temperature and baseflow (correlation coefficient is 0.90) for the 43-year wavelet coefficients, it is suggested that the long-term increasing trends of precipitation and air temperature will lead to an increasing trend of baseflow. For wavelet coefficients of 21-year and 7-year periods, the positive linear correlation between precipitation and baseflow is significant. However, the correlation between air temperature and baseflow is not so evident, especially for the 21-year period. As a conclusion, correlation analysis with normalized wavelet coefficients showed that the change of annual baseflow was contributed mostly by the change of precipitation and secondly by the change of temperature.
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Cited: Baidu(14)
Identifying the influence of urbanization on soil organic matter content and pH from soil magnetic characteristics
YANG Han, XIONG Heigang, CHEN Xuegang, WANG Yaqi, ZHANG Fang
Journal of Arid Land    2015, 7 (6): 820-830.   DOI: 10.1007/s40333-015-0052-x
Abstract1588)      PDF (494KB)(1605)      
Soil magnetic characteristics are correlated with soil pH and organic matter content. Analyzing soil magnetic characteristics, organic matter content and pH can indirectly evaluate soil pollution caused by human activities. This study analyzed the soil magnetic characteristics, organic matter content and pH in surface soil samples from different land use types in Shihezi city, a newly and rapidly developing oasis city in Xinjiang of China. The aims of this study were to explore the possible relationships among the soil magnetic parameters and thereby improve the understanding of influence of urbanization on soil properties. Eighty surface soil samples at the depth of 0–10 cm were collected from 29 July to 4 August 2013. The results showed that the magnetic minerals in surface soil were dominated by ferromagnetic minerals. Spatially, the magnetic susceptibility ( χ LF), anhys-teretic remanent magnetization susceptibility ( χ ARM), saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM) and “soft” isothermal remanent magnetization (SOFT) were found to be most dominant in the new northern urban area B (N-B), followed by built-up areas (U), suburban agricultural land (F), and then the new northern urban area A (N-A). The values of χ LF, χ ARM, SIRM and SOFT were higher in the areas with high intensities of human ac-tivities and around the main roads. Meanwhile, the property “hard” isothermal remanent magnetization (HIRM) followed the order of U>N-B>F>N-A. Built-up areas had an average pH value of 7.93, which was much higher than that in the new northern urban areas as well as in suburban agricultural land, due to the increased urban pollutant emissions. The average value of soil organic matter content in the whole study area was 34.69 g/kg, and the values in the new northern urban areas were much higher than those in the suburban agricultural land and built-up areas. For suburban agricultural land, soil organic matter content was significantly negatively correlated with χ LF, and had no correlation with other magnetic parameters, since the soil was frequently ploughed. In the new northern urban areas (N-A and N-B), there were significant positive correlations of soil organic matter contents with χ ARM, SIRM, SOFT and HIRM, because natural grasslands were not frequently turned over. For the built-up areas, soil organic matter contents were significantly positively correlated with χ LF, χ ARM, SIRM and SOFT, but not significantly correlated with frequency-dependent susceptibility (χ FD, expressed as a percentage) and HIRM, because the soil was not frequently turned over or influenced by human activities. The results showed that soil magnetic characteristics are related to the soil turnover time.
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Cited: Baidu(13)
Computational fluid dynamics evaluation of the effect of different city designs on the wind environment of a downwind natural heritage site
BenLi LIU, JianJun QU, QingHe NIU, JunZhan WANG, KeCun ZHANG
Journal of Arid Land    2014, 6 (1): 69-79.   DOI: 10.1007/s40333-013-0192-9
Abstract1890)      PDF (3862KB)(1705)      
Disturbance in wind regime and sand erosion deposition balance may lead to burial and eventual vanishing of a site. This study conducted 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to evaluate the effect of a proposed city design on the wind environment of the Crescent Spring, a downwind natural heritage site located in Dunhuang, Northwestern China. Satellite terrain data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) were used to construct the solid surface model. Steady-state Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS) with shear stress transport (SST)  k- ω turbulence model were then applied to solve the flow field problems. Land-use changes were modeled implicitly by dividing the underlying surface into different areas and by applying corresponding aerodynamic roughness lengths. Simulations were performed by using cases with different city areas and building heights. Results show that the selected model could capture the surface roughness changes and could adjust wind profile over a large area. Wind profiles varied over the greenfield to the north and over the Gobi land to the east of the spring. Therefore, different wind speed reduction effects were observed from various city construction scenarios. The current city design would lead to about 2 m/s of wind speed reduction at the downwind city edge and about 1 m/s of wind speed reduction at the north of the spring at 35-m height. Reducing the city height in the north greenfield area could efficiently eliminate the negative effects of wind spee. By contrast, restricting the city area worked better in the eastern Gobi area compared with other parts of the study area. Wind speed reduction in areas near the spring could be limited to 0.1 m/s by combining these two abatement strategies. The CFD method could be applied to simulate the wind environment affected by other land-use changes over a large terrain.
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Cited: Baidu(12)
Optically stimulated luminescence dating of sandy deposits from Gulang county at the southern margin of the Tengger Desert, China
PENG Jun, DONG Zhibao, HAN Fengqing
Journal of Arid Land    2016, 8 (1): 1-12.   DOI: 10.1007/s40333-015-0137-6
Abstract1621)      PDF (816KB)(2012)      
Aeolian deposits from the deserts in northern China have been used for palaeoenvironmental research to understand aeolian sedimentology and its dynamic connection to past climate conditions. The Tengger Desert in China is sensitive to the waxing and waning of the monsoonal system. In response to past climate change, the southern margin of the Tengger Desert has evolved significantly since the last glacial period. However, previous attempts to date aeolian deposits in this region were mainly based on radiocarbon dating, which has problems when applied to aeolian deposits. Moreover, sedimentary records are limited. Accordingly, past aeolian activity in this desert remains poorly understood. In the present study, we dated sand samples from Gulang county at the southern margin of the Tengger Desert using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) to understand the history of aeolian activity in this region. Our samples represented well-sorted aeolian sands and sandy loess. Aeolian sands are evidence of dune field buildup and sparse vegetation cover whereas sandy loess is evidence of improved stabilization of sand dunes resulting from ameliorated vegetation cover. Certain samples showed a decline in the equivalent dose ( De) values when successive integration intervals were applied, which resulted from unstable OSL signals from non-fast components in the initial part of the decay curve. In order to obtain reliable De estimates, we investigated component-resolved and different background subtraction approaches, and compared the resultant De estimates. We adopted the early background subtraction method to derive De values. Luminescence chronologies and sedimentary records indicated that sand dunes accumulation occurred before 10 ka, and sandy loess developed between 9.5 and 7.6 ka when sand dunes were stabilized as a result of increased effective moisture levels. The transition between sand dune mobilization and stabilization emphasizes the significance of an effective moisture threshold in controlling aeolian activity. Mobilization of sand dunes at ~2.3 ka might be related to an increased aridity during the Late Holocene.
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Cited: Baidu(12)
Biofilter: a promising tool for mitigating methane emission from manure storage
Qiang HUANG, Qiang ZHANG, Nazim CICEK, Danny MANN
Journal of Arid Land    DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1227.2011.00061
Abstract2755)      PDF (177KB)(4631)      
Liquid manure storage may contribute to methane (CH4) emission and this emission can be greatly reduced if appropriate management practices are applied. Biofiltration has been used in other fields for mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emission (e.g., landfill) and shown promise for mitigation CH4 emission from liquid manure storage. It has been reported that biofilter was capable of reducing 80% of CH4 emissions from manure storage. The CH4 removal efficiency is influenced by many factors, including CH4 and O2 concentrations, temperature, moisture, composition of the filter bed, nutrient, and empty bed residency time (EBRT). Biological conversion of methane of a biofilter is a slow process due to the low water solubility of methane. The residence times (EBRT) between 5 min and 5 h have been used, whereas a typical EBRT of 25 s is used for common biofilter applications. Temperature at which methanotrophic bacteria are active ranges from 10oC to 45oC. The maximum activity is found at around 30oC. The optimal filter bed water content depends on both the gas flow rate and the type of filter bed (soil, compost, etc.) and ranges from 30%–70% of the water holding capacity. Compost is the best material for filter bed. The optimal pH for methanotrophic bacteria is neutral to slightly acidic. Copper and nitrogen compounds especially nitrate are important nutrients to methanotrophic bacteria but their optimal concentrations have not been founded. Phosphorus and other elements such as potassium and manganese are reported to affect the performance of methanotrophic bacteria but need further confirmation.
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Hydrogen isotopic composition of plant leaf wax in response to soil moisture in an arid ecosystem of the northeast Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China
Yuan YAO, WeiGuo LIU
Journal of Arid Land    2014, 6 (5): 592-600.   DOI: 10.1007/s40333-014-0005-9
Abstract1979)      PDF (646KB)(1768)      
The hydrogen isotopic composition of plant leaf wax (δD wax) is used as an important tool for paleohydrologic reconstruction. However, the understanding of the relative importance of environmental and biological factors in determining δDwax values still remains incomplete. To identify the effects of soil moisture and plant physiology on δD wax values in an arid ecosystem, and to explore the implication of these values for paleoclimatic reconstruction, we measured δD values of soil water (δD water) and δDwax values in surface soils along two distance transects extending from the lakeshore to wetland to dryland around Lake Qinghai and Lake Gahai on the north¬east Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The results showed that the δD water values were negatively correlated with soil water content (SWC) ( R 2=0.9166), and ranged from –67‰ to –46‰ with changes in SWC from 6.2% to 42.1% in the arid areas of the Gangcha (GCh) and Gahai (GH) transects. This indicated that evaporative D-enrichment in soil water was sensitive to soil moisture in an arid ecosystem. Although the shift from grasses to shrubs with increasing aridity occurred in the arid area of the GH transect, the δD wax values in surface soils from the arid areas of the two transects still showed a negative correlation with SWC ( R 2=0.6835), which may be due to the controls of primary evaporative D-enrichment in the soil water and additional transpirational D-enrichment in the leaf water on the δDwax values. Our preliminary research suggested that δDwax values can potentially be applied as a paleo-humidity indicator on the northeast Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.
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Cited: Baidu(11)
Impacts of land disturbance and restoration on runoff production and sediment yield inthe Chinese Loess Plateau
Ning AI, Tianxing WEI, Qingke ZHU, Fangfang QIANG, Huan MA, Wei QIN
Journal of Arid Land    2017, 9 (1): 76-86.   DOI: 10.1007/s40333-016-0088-6
Abstract932)   HTML1)    PDF (408KB)(1245)      

Land disturbance and land restoration are important factors influencing runoff production and sediment yield in the semi-arid loess regions of China.This study compared the runoff production and sediment yield during the early stage after land disturbance (ESLD) with those during restoring stage after land disturbance (RSLD). Grey relational analysis was used to analyse the importance of each one of the influencing factors (vegetation, rainfall, soil and topography) in affecting the runoff production and sediment yield. Our results showed that during ESLD, topography was the most critical factor controlling the runoff production, while soil was the most important factor controllingthe sediment yield. DuringRSLD, vegetation was more important in affecting runoff production, while rainfall was more important in affecting sediment yield. In additional, this study demonstrated that both the runoff production and the sediment yield can be effectively reduced by restoring vegetation on severely-disturbed lands, thus providing an important theoretical basis for better implementations of the Grain for Green Program.Our results revealed that the vegetation types of Hippophaerhamnoides+Pinustabulaeformis and H.rhamnoides are better plant selections for land restoration in this area, especially for relatively gentle slopes (i.e., less than 20 degrees).

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Cited: Baidu(10)
Effects of grassland management on the community structure, aboveground biomass and stability of a temperate steppe in Inner Mongolia, China
ZHANG Jinghui, HUANG Yongmei, CHEN Huiying, GONG Jirui, QI Yu, YANG Fei,
Journal of Arid Land    2016, 8 (3): 422-433.   DOI: 10.1007/s40333-016-0002-2
Abstract1169)      PDF (313KB)(1428)      
 community structure responds strongly to anthropogenic disturbances, which greatly influence community stability. The changes in community structure, aboveground biomass (AGB), biodiversity and community stability associated with different management practices were studied with a three-year field investigation in a temperate steppe of Inner Mongolia, China. The species richness, Shannon-Wiener index, evenness, plant functional type abundance, AGB, temporal community stability, summed covariance, scaling coefficient and dominant species stability were compared among areas subjected to long-term reservation (R), long-term grazing (G), mowing since enclosure in 2008 (M) and grazing enclosure since 2008 (E). Site R had higher perennial grass abundance and lower species richness than sites G, M and E, although the AGB was not significantly different among the four sites. The species structure varied from a single dominant species at site R to multiple dominant species at sites G, M and E. The long-term reservation grassland had lower biodiversity but higher stability, whereas the enclosed grassland with/without mowing had higher biodiversity but lower stability. Different stability mechanisms, such as the compensatory dynamics, mean-variance scaling and dominant species stability were examined. Results showed that community stability was most closely related to the relative stability of the dominant species, which supports the biomass ratio hypothesis proposed by Grime.
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Cited: Baidu(9)
Effects of shrub species and microhabitats on dew formation in a revegetation-stabilized desert ecosystem in Shapotou, northern China
YanXia PAN, XinPing WANG
Journal of Arid Land    2014, 6 (4): 389-399.   DOI: 10.1007/s40333-014-0008-6
Abstract1875)      PDF (257KB)(2165)      
Dew is an important supplement water source in arid and semi-arid areas. In order to determine the dew formation on different kinds of soils associated with various shrub species and microhabitats, we performed measurement of accumulated dew formation amount and duration in October 2009 in a revegetation-stabilized arid desert ecosystem in Shapotou area, northern China. The results indicated that the accumulated dew formation amount was four times larger at open spaces as compared to under the canopy, and it was nearly twice as much under living Artemisia ordosica plants (L.A.) as compared to under living Caragana korshinskii plants (L.C.). The opposite characteristics were found for dew duration between different microhabitats. Dew amounts at different vertical heights around the shrub stands were in the order of 50 cm above the canopy>the canopy edge>under the canopy. Dew amount continued to increase after dawn, and the proportion of average accumulated dew amount after dawn ac-counting for the average maximum amount increased from above the canopy to under the canopy. Dew formation duration after sunrise accounted for more than 50% of the total formation duration during the day time. Contrary to the distribution characteristics of dew amount, dew duration after dawn and total dew formation duration during the day time were both highest under the canopy, followed by at the canopy edge and then at 50 cm above the canopy. The portion of dew duration after dawn accounting for the total dew duration during the day time increased from above the canopy to under the canopy. From these results, we may conclude that dew availability as a supple-mental water resource for improving the microhabitats in water-limited arid ecosystems is position dependent es-pecially for the plant microhabitats at different stands layers.
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Cited: Baidu(9)
Changes in aggregate-associated organic carbon and nitrogen after 27 years of fertilization in a dryland alfalfa grassland on the Loess Plateau of China
ZHANG Liqiong, WEI Xiaorong, HAO Mingde, ZHANG Meng
Journal of Arid Land    2015, 7 (4): 429-437.   DOI: 10.1007/s40333-015-0003-6
Abstract1736)      PDF (249KB)(1803)      
Changes in the distribution of soil aggregate sizes and concentrations of aggregate-associated organic carbon (OC) and nitrogen (N) in response to the fertilization of grasslands are not well understood. Understanding these changes is essential to the sustainable development of artificial grasslands. For understanding these changes, we collected soil samples at 0–20 and 20–40 cm depths from a semi-arid artificial alfalfa grassland after 27 years of applications of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen+phosphorus+manure (NPM) fertilizers on the Loess Plateau of China. The distribution of aggregate sizes and the concentrations and stocks of OC and N in total soils were determined. The results showed that NPM treatment significantly increased the proportions of >2.0 mm and 2.0–0.25 mm size fractions, the mean geometric diameter (MGD) and the mean weight diameter (MWD) in the 0–20 cm layer. Phosphorous fertilizer significantly increased the proportion of >2.0 mm size fractions, the MGD and the MWD in the 0–20 cm layer. Long-term application of fertilization (P and NPM) resulted in the accumulation of OC and N in soil aggregates. The largest changes in aggregate-associated OC and N in the 0–20 cm layer were found at the NPM treatment, whereas the largest changes in the 20–40 cm layer were found at the P treatment. The results suggest that long-term fertilization in the grassland leads to the accumulation of OC and N in the coarse size fractions and the redistribution of OC and N from fine size fractions to coarse size fractions.
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Cited: Baidu(9)
The relationship between soil, climate and forest development in the mid-mountain zone of the Sangong River watershed in the northern Tianshan Mountains, China
Li DAI, YiXing FENG, GePing LUO, YanZhong LI2, WenQiang XU
Journal of Arid Land    2015, 7 (1): 63-72.   DOI: 10.1007/s40333-014-0073-x
Abstract1628)      PDF (235KB)(1654)      
The mountainous forests in arid regions, being sensitive to climate change, are one of the key research topics related to the mechanism of interaction between climate and the terrestrial ecosystem. In this study, the spatial distribution of a mid-mountain forest and its environmental factors were investigated by using a combination of remote sensing technology, field survey, climate indices and soil nutrient analysis in the Sangong River watershed of the northern Tianshan Mountains. The forest (Picea schrenkiana) was distributed between 1,510 and 2,720 m asl. Tree height and diameter at breast height (DBH) exhibited a bi-modal pattern with increasing elevation, and rested at 2,450 and 2,250 m asl, respectively. The two maxima of DBH appeared at 2,000 and 2,550 m asl, and the taller trees were observed at 2,100 and 2,600 m asl. For the annual mean temperature, the difference was approximately 5.8°C between the lowest and the highest limits of the forest, and the average decreasing rates per hundred meters were 0.49°C and 0.55°C with increasing altitude between 1,500 and 2,000 m asl and above 2,000 m asl, respectively. The annual precipitation in the forest zone first increased and then decreased with the increase of altitude, and the maximum value was at 2,000 m asl. For per hundred meters, the annual precipitation increased with the rate of 31 mm between 1,500 and 2,000 m asl and decreased by 7.8 mm above 2,000 m asl. The SOM, TN and TP were high between 2,000 and 2,700 m asl and low at the lower and upper forest limits. The minimum CaCO3 concentration, pH value and EC coincided with the maximum precipitation belt at 2,000 m asl. The SOM, TN and TP were high in the topsoil (0–10 cm) and differed significantly from the values observed in the deep soil layers (>10 cm). The soil nutrients exhibited spatial heterogeneity and higher aggregation in the topsoil. In conclusion, soil and climate are closely related to each other, working synergistically to determine the development and spatial distribution of the mid-mountain forest in the study area. The order of the importance of environmental factors to forest development in this study is as follows: soil nutrients>precipitation>elevation>temperature.
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Cited: Baidu(8)
Oasis cold island effect and its influence on air temperature: a case study of Tarim Basin, Northwest China
HAO Xingming, LI Weihong
Journal of Arid Land    2016, 8 (2): 172-183.   DOI: 10.1007/s40333-015-0060-x
Abstract1317)      PDF (1237KB)(1817)      
Oasis effect can improve the regional climate and habitability of an arid region. In this study, we explored the cold island effects of oases distributed along the edge of Tarim Basin by analyzing the oasis cold island effect (OCIE) intensity, spatial-temporal variation of OCIE, factors influencing the OCIE and impacts of OCIE on air temperature using geographical statistics and GIS methods based on the MODIS land surface temperature, land use/cover change (LUCC) and observed air temperature data. Results showed that all the oases in the Tarim Basin exhibited cold island effects, with the OCIE intensity highest in summer (−9.08°C), followed by autumn (−4.24°C) and spring (−3.85°C). The total area of oasis cold island (OCI) and the comprehensive OCIE index showed the same seasonal change trend as the OCIE intensity. However, the changing trends in areas of OCI with strong, medium and weak OCIEs were inconsistent across different seasons. Farmland and water areas were found to be the key contributors that affected the OCIE, and the area and aggregation metrics of these two land use/cover types directly contributed to the OCIE. By contrast, natural vegetation, such as forest and grassland, almost had no contribution to the OCIE. Simulation of observed air temperature data showed that if farmland is replaced by forest or grassland in the oasis, the mean, maximum and minimum air temperatures will increase significantly. This heating effect will be higher in summer (reaching 1.14°C to 2.08°C) and lower in spring and autumn. Moreover, the heating effect of farmland being replaced by forest will be higher than that of farmland being replaced by grassland. These results can provide a basis for understanding the cold island effect of oases in arid regions.
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Cited: Baidu(8)
Effects of atmospheric circulation on summertime precipitation variability and glacier mass balance over the Tuyuksu Glacier in Tianshan Mountains, Kazakhstan
Journal of Arid Land    2015, 7 (5): 687-695.   DOI: 10.1007/s40333-015-0083-3
Abstract1443)      PDF (250KB)(1776)      
The amount and the form of precipitation have significant effects on glacier mass balances in high al-titude mountain areas by controlling the accumulation, the ablation and the energy balance of a glacier through impact on the surface albedo. The liquid precipitation has negative effects on glacier accumulation and may in-crease the ablation of surface ice through the heat input for melting. The timing and the forms of precipitation over glacierized regions depend on the weather processes both locally and regionally. Early studies showed that regional to large-scale atmospheric circulation processes play a key role in affecting the precipitation events over glaciers. This paper analyzed the relationship between the inter-annual variability of the summertime precipitation over the Tuyuksu Glacier and the atmospheric circulation types, which related to various atmospheric circulation types in the Northern Hemisphere. Results indicated that the decrease in the duration of zonal processes and the increase in the meridional northern processes were observed in the last decade. The total summer precipitation associated with these processes also increased along with an increase of summertime solid precipitation. Although the decadal fluctuation of glaciological parameters were found in dependent of the above large-scale atmospheric circulation processes, global warming was a dominant factor leading to the mass loss in the recent decades under the back-ground of the increase in precipitation over the Tuyuksu Glacier.
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Cited: Baidu(7)
Planar morphology and controlling factors of the gullies in the Yuanmou Dry-hot Valley based on field investigation
DENG Qingchun, MIAO Fang, ZHANG Bin, LUO Mingliang, LIU Hui, LIU Xiaojiao, QIN Fachao, LIU Gangcai
Journal of Arid Land    2015, 7 (6): 778-793.   DOI: 10.1007/s40333-015-0135-8
Abstract1410)      PDF (724KB)(1376)      
The plane form of a gully can provide a basis for evaluating the gully volume and erosion rate, acting process, and evolutionary stage. For describing the planar characteristics of a permanent gully and understanding their controlling factors, this study, utilizing a total station and GPS RTK, measured the shoulder lines and channel curves of 112 gullies in six sites of the Yuanmou Dry-hot Valley and then mapped them by ArcGIS software and calculated nine parameters. The results showed that the channel lengths range from 10.88 to 249.11 m; the widths range from 6.20 to 40.99 m; the perimeters range from 54.11 to 541.67 m; the gully areas range from 153.02 to 6,930.30 m 2; the left-side areas range from 92.93 to 4,027.20 m 2; and the right-side areas range from 63.65 to 3,539.77 m 2. The slightly sinuous and straight gullies account for 73.21% of the total gullies; the quantity of the right skewed gullies is 8.93% greater than that of the left skewed ones based on the symmetry ratio; the shape ratios range from 1.12 to 1.40 and the morphology ratios from 0.038 to 1.294; the fractal dimension is 1.192. Gullies in different sites have diverse planar characteristics. Except for the symmetry index, which was close to a negatively skewed distribution, all of the other parameters had the characteristic of positively skewed distribution. The gully area is related to the length and width, but the gully length has a weak correlation with the width. The evolutionary stage, topographic conditions, strata, soil properties, and piping erosion played very important roles in the gully planar morphology. This study could provide useful infor-mation for controlling gully erosion and safeguarding human habitation and engineering buildings.
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Cited: Baidu(7)
Two energy balance closure approaches: applications and comparisons over an oasis-desert ecotone
Xin PAN, Yuanbo LIU, Xingwang FAN, Guojing GAN
Journal of Arid Land    2017, 9 (1): 51-64.   DOI: 10.1007/s40333-016-0063-2
Abstract888)   HTML2)    PDF (534KB)(1323)      

Studies of energy balance that rely on eddy covariance (EC) are always challenged by energy balance closure, which is mainly caused by the underestimations of latent heat flux (LE) and sensible heat flux (Hs). The Bowen ratio (BR) and energy balance residual (ER) approaches are two widely-used methods to correct the LE. A comprehensive comparison of those two approaches in different land-use types is essential to accurately correcting the LE and thus improving the EC experiments. In this study, two energy balance approaches (i.e., BR and ER) were compared to correct the LE measured at six EC sites (i.e., three vegetated, one mixed and two non-vegetated sites) in an oasis-desert ecotone of the Heihe River Basin, China. The influences of meteorological factors on those two approaches were also quantitatively assessed. Our results demonstrated that the average energy closure ratio ((LE+Hs)/(Rn-Gs); where Rn is the surface net radiation and Gs is the surface soil heat flux) was approximately close to 1.0 at wetland, maize and village sites, but far from 1.0 at orchard, Gobi and desert sites, indicating a significant energy imbalance at those three latter sites. After the corrections of BR and ER approaches that took into account of soil heat storage, the corrected LE was considerably larger than the EC-measured LE at five of six EC sites with an exception at Gobi site. The BR and ER approaches yielded approximately similar corrected LE at vegetated and mixed sites, but they generated dissimilar results at non-vegetated sites, especially at non-vegetated sites with low relative humidity, strong wind, and large surface-air temperature difference. Our findings provide insight into the applicability of BR and ER approaches to correcting EC-based LE measurements in different land-use types. We recommend that the BR-corrected and ER-corrected LE could be seriously reconsidered as validation references in dry and windy areas.

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Assessing ecological vulnerability in western China based on Time-Integrated NDVI data
JIN Jia, WANG Quan
Journal of Arid Land    2016, 8 (4): 533-545.   DOI: 10.1007/s40333-016-0048-1
Abstract1323)      PDF (432KB)(1569)      
Arid and semi-arid areas are the most vulnerable regions to climate change. Clear understanding of the effects of climate change on ecosystems in arid and semi-arid regions and the ecosystem vulnerability is important for ecosystem management under the background of climate change. In this study, we conducted a vulnerability assessment on various ecosystems from 1982 to 2013 in western China with large areas of arid and semi-arid lands based on the Time-Integrated Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (TINDVI) data and climate data. The results indicated that grasslands were the most vulnerable ecosystem to climate change in western China, especially for those in Tibetan Plateau. Croplands in oases were not vulnerable to climate change compared to rain-fed croplands in semi-arid regions (e.g. Gansu and Inner Mongolia), which was attributed to the well-developed drip irrigation technology in oases. Desert and Gobi ecosystems were slightly vulnerable to climate change during the past several decades. The assessment results, as revealed in this study, can provide a reference for taking appropriate actions to protect the ecosystems in western China.
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Cited: Baidu(7)
Vertical distribution of sand-dust aerosols and the relationships with atmospheric environment
Jie ZHANG, XingMing LI
Journal of Arid Land    2012, 4 (4): 357-368.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1227.2012.00357
Abstract2633)      PDF (1648KB)(2701)      
The vertical distribution of aerosols in the troposphere is important for determining their effects on cli-mate. The vertical distribution of aerosols under different atmospheric conditions in the free troposphere was di-rectly observed using a surface micro-pulse LIDAR (MPL) and a TP/WVP-3000 microwave radiometer at the Semi-Arid Climate & Environment Observatory of Lanzhou University (SACOL, 35.95°N, 104.10°E) in the western Loess Plateau, China, in the spring of 2008. The results showed two possible transportation paths of a sandstorm from May 1 to May 4 in 2008. In one path, sand-dust aerosols were transported toward the east from the Taklimakan Desert to the Badain Jaran Desert and the Tengger Desert by a westerly wind and then toward the southeast to Jingtai and Lanzhou. A weak aerosol index (AI) indicated another possible transport path toward the east from the Taklimakan Desert to the Qaidam Basin and through the Tibetan Plateau eastward to SACOL. The aerosol profile of sandstorm processes over the SACOL area displayed three patterns: a single peak distribution under stable at-mospheric conditions, indicating urban aerosol distribution; an exponential decrease under unstable atmospheric conditions in the presence of a sandstorm; and a slight change in the mixed layer during the first and last stages of the sandstorm, indicative of thorough mixing during lifting and deposition stages. Analyses of the aerosol layer height (ALH) showed that there are two types of ALH diurnal variation. The ALH during the first sandstorm stage was complex and disordered, and affected by atmospheric circulation. While the ALH had obvious diurnal variation in the other stage, the ALH and aerosol extinction coefficient (AEC) had a single peak, and was higher in the af-ternoon and lower in the morning. In the second case the ALH was in agreement with the atmospheric boundary layer height (BLH) variation. As a result of the development of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) during day and maintenance at night, ALH during sandstorm-free days showed obvious diurnal variations. Multiple vertical distribu-tion patterns of sand-dust aerosols will result in different climate effects; therefore, the vertical distribution patterns can be used to parameterize climate and aerosol models.
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Cited: Baidu(7)
Genetic structure and historical demography of Malus sieversii in the Yili Valley and the western mountains of the Junggar Basin, Xinjiang, China
HongXiang ZHANG, MingLi ZHANG, LiNa WANG
Journal of Arid Land    2015, 7 (2): 264-271.   DOI: 10.1007/s40333-014-0044-2
Abstract1617)      PDF (328KB)(2494)      
Malus sieversii, a wild progenitor of domesticated apple, is distributed in western Xinjiang of China, eastern part of Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan in Central Asia. To well understand the genetic structure and the historical demography of this important germplasm resource, we sampled 15 populations with 110 individuals of Malus sieversii from the Yili Valley and the western mountains of the Junggar Basin, Xinjiang, and sequenced two nrDNA fragments for these 110 individuals. Meanwhile, we modeled and compared species distributions under the current and the Last Glacial Maximum climatic conditions. The results showed that populations of M. sieversii from Xinjiang had low levels of genetic diversity and genetic differentiation. During the LGM period, populations of M. sieversii had lost their northern distributions in the western mountains of the Junggar Basin. M. sieversii has experienced a demographic expansion from the south of the Yili Valley to the north of the western mountains of the Junggar Basin during the warm interglacial epochs. Due to the high sensibility of M. sieversii to disturbance, we proposed more attention should be paid to the M. sieversii populations in the western mountains of the Junggar Basin.
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Cited: Baidu(7)
Soil organic matter amendments in date palm groves of the Middle Eastern and North African region: a mini-review
Rawan MLIH, Roland BOL, Wulf AMELUNG, Nadhem BRAHIM
Journal of Arid Land    2016, 8 (1): 77-92.   DOI: 10.1007/s40333-015-0054-8
Abstract1492)      PDF (447KB)(1533)      
Countries in the Middle Eastern and North African (MENA) region are among the most water-scarce regions in the world, and their dryland soils are usually poor in organic carbon content (<0.5%). In this study, we summarize examples of how people in the few oases of the MENA region overcome environmental challenges by sustainably managing economically important date production. On the basis of the limited studies found in the existing literature, this mini-review focuses on the role of traditional soil organic matter amendments beneath the soil surface as a key tool in land restoration. We conclude that soil organic matter amendments can be very successful in restoring soil water and preventing the soil from salinization.
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Cited: Baidu(6)
Sand mining disturbances and their effects on the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a riparian forest of Iran
Journal of Arid Land    2017, 9 (6): 837-849.   DOI: 10.1007/s40333-017-0028-0
Abstract461)   HTML5)    PDF (398KB)(770)      

The major objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of sand mining disturbances on the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). In addition, the proportional changes in the diversity of AMF to the distances from riverbanks were assessed. For this purpose, the riparian forest of the Maroon River, Iran was divided into three locations with a 200-meter wide zone in between. Thus, the locations studied were named Distance I (riverbank), Distance II (intermediate), and Distance III (farthest from riverbank). In each of these distances, 10 Tamarix arceuthoides and Populus euphratica of each species were randomly selected. At the same time, soil and root samples were collected from the rhizosphere of the tree species studied. Results indicated that totally 13 AMF species were observed in T. arceuthoides and 19 AMF species were recorded in P. euphratica rhizosphere belonging to 6 genera and 6 families. In these AMF species, Glomus segmentatum, G. geosporum, G. rubiforme, G. nanolumen, G. spinuliferum, Claroideoglomus drummondii, Gigaspora gigantea and Acaulospora paulinae appeared only in P. euphratica rhizosphere, while G. multiforum and Claroideoglomus claroideum were observed only in T. arceuthoides rhizosphere. Moreover, Distance II had the least AMF species both in T. arceuthoides and in P. euphratica rhizospheres, and also the least spore density and root colonization rate. Our results are important in that they provide a list of resistant AMF species that could be used in the conservation of biodiversity.

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Interactions between wind and water erosion change sediment yield and particle distribution under simulated conditions
TUO Dengfeng, XU Mingxiang, ZHAO Yunge, GAO Liqian
Journal of Arid Land    2015, 7 (5): 590-598.   DOI: 10.1007/s40333-015-0128-7
Abstract1514)      PDF (201KB)(2178)      
Wind and water erosion are among the most important causes of soil loss, and understanding their interactions is important for estimating soil quality and environmental impacts in regions where both types of erosion occur. We used a wind tunnel and simulated rainfall to study sediment yield, particle-size distribution and the fractal dimension of the sediment particles under wind and water erosion. The experiment was conducted with wind erosion firstly and water erosion thereafter, under three wind speeds (0, 11 and 14 m/s) and three rainfall intensities (60, 80 and 100 mm/h). The results showed that the sediment yield was positively correlated with wind speed and rainfall intensity ( P<0.01). Wind erosion exacerbated water erosion and increased sediment yield by 7.25%–38.97% relative to the absence of wind erosion. Wind erosion changed the sediment particle distribution by influencing the micro-topography of the sloping land surface. The clay, silt and sand contents of eroded sediment were also positively correlated with wind speed and rainfall intensity ( P<0.01). Wind erosion increased clay and silt contents by 0.35%–19.60% and 5.80%–21.10%, respectively, and decreased sand content by 2.40%–8.33%, relative to the absence of wind erosion. The effect of wind erosion on sediment particles became weaker with increasing rainfall intensities, which was consistent with the variation in sediment yield. However, particle-size distribution was not closely correlated with sediment yield ( P>0.05). The fractal dimension of the sediment particles was significantly different under different intensities of water erosion ( P<0.05), but no significant difference was found under wind and water erosion. The findings reported in this study implicated that both water and wind erosion should be controlled to reduce their intensifying effects, and the controlling of wind erosion could significantly reduce water erosion in this wind-water erosion crisscross region.
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Cited: Baidu(6)
Monophyly and infrageneric variation of Corispermum L. (Chenopodiaceae), evidence from sequence data psbB-psbH, rbcL and ITS
JuanJuan XUE, MingLi ZHANG
Journal of Arid Land    2011, 3 (4): 240-253.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1227.2011.00240
Abstract3377)      PDF (1766KB)(5920)      
Corispermum is one of the most problematic taxonomic genera in Chenopodiaceae. To understand the phylogeny and infrageneric variation of Corispermum, we sequenced the nuclear ribosomal ITS region and two chloroplast DNA regions (rbcL and psbB-psbH) of 22 species and three varieties of Corispermum and the related genus Agriophyllum. Several representative species of Salsola, Suaeda, Chenopodium, Kalidium and Camphorosma served as outgroups. Our phylogenetic trees confirm that the tribe Corispermeae is monophyletic, Corispermum and Agriophyllum have a close relationship. Corispermum is demonstrated to be monophyletic, and contains at least four clades which, consequently, are served as the foundation of the infrageneric sectional variation of Corispermum, in terms of a combination of molecular data and morphological characters. The evolution of morphological characters for fruit wing and apex, two important characters in generic classification, is consistent with the sectional division of Corispermum, especially to the East Asian and Chinese taxa.
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Cited: Baidu(5)
Effects of freezing intensity on soil solution nitrogen and microbial biomass nitrogen in an alpine grassland ecosystem on the Tibetan Plateau, China
YANG Zhaoping, GAO Jixi, YANG Meng, SUN Zhizhong
Journal of Arid Land    2016, 8 (5): 749-759.   DOI: 10.1007/s40333-016-0012-0
Abstract1247)      PDF (235KB)(1291)      
The change of freeze-thaw pattern of the Tibetan Plateau under climate warming is bound to have a profound impact on the soil process of alpine grassland ecosystem; however, the research on the impact of the freeze-thaw action on nitrogen processes of the alpine grassland ecosystem on the Tibetan Plateau has not yet attracted much attention. In this study, the impact of the freezing strength on the soil nitrogen components of alpine grassland on the Tibetan Plateau was studied through laboratory freeze-thaw simulation experiments. The 0–10 cm topsoil was collected from the alpine marsh meadow and alpine meadow in the permafrost region of Beilu River. In the experiment, the soil samples were cultivated at –10°C, –7°C, –5°C, –3°C and –1°C, respectively for three days and then thawed at 2°C for one day. The results showed that after the freeze-thaw process, the soil microbial biomass nitrogen significantly decreased while the dissolved organic nitrogen and inorganic nitrogen significantly increased. When the freezing temperature was below –7°C, there was no significant difference between the content of nitrogen components, which implied a change of each nitrogen component might have a response threshold toward the freezing temperature. As the freeze-thaw process can lead to the risk of nitrogen loss in the alpine grassland ecosystem, more attention should be paid to the response of the soil nitrogen cycle of alpine grasslands on the Tibetan Plateau to the freeze-thaw process.
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Cited: Baidu(5)
Runoff of arid and semi-arid regions simulated and projected by CLM-DTVGM and its multi-scale fluctuations as revealed by EEMD analysis
NING Like, XIA Jun, ZHAN Chesheng, ZHANG Yongyong
Journal of Arid Land    2016, 8 (4): 506-520.   DOI: 10.1007/s40333-016-0126-4
Abstract1260)      PDF (802KB)(1609)      
Runoff is a major component of the water cycle, and its multi-scale fluctuations are important to water resources management across arid and semi-arid regions. This paper coupled the Distributed Time Variant Gain Model (DTVGM) into the Community Land Model (CLM 3.5), replacing the TOPMODEL-based method to simulate runoff in the arid and semi-arid regions of China. The coupled model was calibrated at five gauging stations for the period 1980–2005 and validated for the period 2006–2010. Then, future runoff (2010–2100) was simulated for different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) emission scenarios. After that, the spatial distributions of the future runoff for these scenarios were discussed, and the multi-scale fluctuation characteristics of the future annual runoff for the RCP scenarios were explored using the Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) analysis method. Finally, the decadal variabilities of the future annual runoff for the entire study area and the five catchments in it were investigated. The results showed that the future annual runoff had slowly decreasing trends for scenarios RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5 during the period 2010–2100, whereas it had a non-monotonic trend for the RCP 4.5 scenario, with a slow increase after the 2050s. Additionally, the future annual runoff clearly varied over a decadal time scale, indicating that it had clear divisions between dry and wet periods. The longest dry period was approximately 15 years (2040–2055) for the RCP 2.6 scenario and 25 years (2045–2070) for the RCP 4.5 scenario. However, the RCP 8.5 scenario was predicted to have a long dry period starting from 2045. Under these scenarios, the water resources situation of the study area will be extremely severe. Therefore, adaptive water management measures addressing climate change should be adopted to proactively confront the risks of water resources.
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Cited: Baidu(5)
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal association in Asteraceae plants growing in the arid lands of Saudi Arabia
Partha P DHAR, Abdul A AL-QARAWI, Mohammed A U MRIDHA
Journal of Arid Land    2015, 7 (5): 676-686.   DOI: 10.1007/s40333-015-0081-5
Abstract1446)      PDF (223KB)(2072)      
The present research was undertaken to explor the possibility of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) associa-tion with Asteraceae plants in the arid lands of Saudi Arabia (Al-Ghat, Buraydah, Thumamah and Huraymila). AM fungal colonization in the roots, spore numbers in the rhizosphere soil, fungal species diversity and correlation between AM properties and soil properties were determined. The highest colonization was in Conyza bonariensis (65%) from Al-Ghat, Anthemis cotula (52%) from Buraydah and C . bonariensis (53%) from Thumamah. The lowest was in Vernonia schimperi (41%) from Al-Ghat, Pulicaria undulata (25%) from Buraydah, Acanthospermum hispidum (34%) from Thumamah, Asteriscus graveolens (22%) and V. schimperi (22%) from Huraymila. Vesicular and arbuscular colonization were also presented in all plant species examined. The number of spores were 112–207 in Al-Ghat, 113–133 in Buraydah, 87–148 in Thumamah and 107–158 in Huraymila. Funneliformis mosseae, Glomus etunicatum, G. fasciculatum and G. aggregatum were identified. Relative frequency of AM fungal species varied widely and was irrespective of location and plant species. Diversity index varied with the rhizosphere soils of dif-ferent plant species at various locations. Soil properties varied with locations and no distinct correlations were ob-served among the soil properties, root colonization and the number of spores. The results of the present study specified the association of AM fungi in different plants of Asteraceae and its significance in the ecological func-tioning of annual plants in the punitive environments of the rangelands in Saudi Arabia.
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Cited: Baidu(5)
Characterizing regional precipitation-driven lake area change in Mongolia
Sinkyu KANG, Gyoungbin LEE, Chuluun TOGTOKH, Keunchang JANG
Journal of Arid Land    2015, 7 (2): 146-158.   DOI: 10.1007/s40333-014-0081-x
Abstract1677)      PDF (366KB)(2053)      
Lake area is an important indicator for climate change and its relationship with climatic factors is critical for understanding the mechanisms that control lake level changes. In this study, lake area changes and their relations to precipitation were investigated using multi-temporal Landsat Thermatic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thermatic Mapper plus (ETM+) images collected from 10 different regions of Mongolia since the late 1980s. A linear-regression analysis was applied to examine the relationship between precipitation and lake area change for each region and across different regions of Mongolia. The relationships were interpreted in terms of re-gional climate regime and hydromorphological characteristics. A total of 165 lakes with areas greater than 10 hm 2 were identified from the Landsat images, which were aggregated for each region to estimate the regional lake area. Temporal lake area variability was larger in the Gobi regions, where small lakes are densely dis-tributed. The regression analyses indicated that the regional patterns of precipitation-driven lake area changes varied considerably (R 2=0.028–0.950), depending on regional climate regime and hydromorphological char-acteristics. Generally, the lake area change in the hot-and-dry Gobi regions showed higher correlations with precipitation change. The precedent two-month precipitation was the best determining factor of lake area change across Mongolia. Our results indicate the usefulness of regression analysis based on satellite-derived multi-temporal lake area data to identify regions where factors other than precipitation might play important roles in determining lake area change.
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Cited: Baidu(5)
A cladistic scenario of Southern Pacific biogeographical history based on Nothofagus dispersal and vicariance analysis
Journal of Arid Land    2011, 3 (2): 104-113.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1227.2011.00104
Abstract2526)      PDF (253KB)(2215)      
Nothofagus is regarded as a key group for interpreting Southern Pacific biogeographical history. Based on a molecular phylogenetic tree, a quantitative dispersal-vicariance analysis (DIVA) of the genus is presented. The results indicate that the ancestral area of Nothofagus is a broad realm almost including the total extant distribution pattern of the genus rather than a so-named center of origin. Integrated with the paleogeography, the time of origin and subsequent diversification is inferred to have started in the Late Cretaceous. Most vicariance and dispersal events should be contained in that period. Vicariance events versus dispersal events play a dominant rule in speciation. The dispersal events are hypothesized to happen from the Late Cretaceous to Eocene in terms of the geological history. Rich fossils are collected in the Eocene. South America, comprising three subgenera of Nothofagus, should be considered as a diversification region, in which the distribution of the species of subgenus Fuscospora and subgenus Nothofagus are explained by dispersal events during the Late Cretaceous-Late Eocene.
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Cited: Baidu(4)