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Modeling the contribution of abiotic exchange to CO2 flux in alkaline soils of arid areas
WenFeng WANG, Xi CHEN, GePing LUO, LongHui LI
Journal of Arid Land    2014, 6 (1): 27-36.   DOI: 10.1007/s40333-013-0187-6
Abstract1806)      PDF(pc) (1605KB)(2167)       Save
Recent studies on alkaline soils of arid areas suggest a possible contribution of abiotic exchange to soil CO 2 flux (F c). However, both the overall contribution of abiotic CO 2 exchange and its drivers remain unknown. Here we analyzed the environmental variables suggested as possible drivers by previous studies and constructed a function of these variables to model the contribution of abiotic exchange to F c in alkaline soils of arid areas. An automated flux system was employed to measure F c in the Manas River Basin of Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region, China. Soil pH, soil temperature at 0–5 cm (T s), soil volumetric water content at 0–5 cm (θ s) and air temperature at 10 cm above the soil surface (T as) were simultaneously analyzed. Results highlight reduced sensitivity of F c to T s and good prediction of Fc by the model F c=R 10Q 10 (Tas–10)/10+r7q7(pH–7)+λT as+µθ s+e which represents F c as a sum of biotic and abiotic components. This presents an approximate method to quantify the contribution of soil abiotic CO 2 exchange to F c in alkaline soils of arid areas.
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Cited: Baidu(31)
Estimating total nitrogen deposition in agroecosystems in northern China during the wheat cropping season
ChunE HE, XueJun LIU, Christie PETER, Fangmeier ANDREAS, FuSuo ZHANG
Journal of Arid Land    DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1227.2010.00002
Abstract2446)      PDF(pc) (148KB)(1335)       Save
Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has been poorly documented in northern China, an intensive agricultural and industrial region with large emissions of NHx and NOy. To quantify N deposition, total airborne N deposition was determined at three agricultural sites using a manual integrated total nitrogen input (ITNI) system during growth of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) from September 2005 to May 2006. Total estimated N deposition averaged 54.9 and 43.2 kg N/hm2 across the three sites when wheat was grown to flowering and maturing, respectively. The average value was 50.2 kg N/hm2 when ryegrass was the indicator plant. Both indicator species gave similar total airborne N input results. The intermediate level of N supplied resulted in the highest N deposition, and the ratio of N acquired from deposition to total N content of the whole system decreased with increasing N supply to the roots. The contribution of atmospheric N to the total N content of the wheat and ryegrass sand culture systems ranged from 10% to 24%.
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Cited: Baidu(24)
Identifying the influence of urbanization on soil organic matter content and pH from soil magnetic characteristics
YANG Han, XIONG Heigang, CHEN Xuegang, WANG Yaqi, ZHANG Fang
Journal of Arid Land    2015, 7 (6): 820-830.   DOI: 10.1007/s40333-015-0052-x
Abstract1543)      PDF(pc) (494KB)(1480)       Save
Soil magnetic characteristics are correlated with soil pH and organic matter content. Analyzing soil magnetic characteristics, organic matter content and pH can indirectly evaluate soil pollution caused by human activities. This study analyzed the soil magnetic characteristics, organic matter content and pH in surface soil samples from different land use types in Shihezi city, a newly and rapidly developing oasis city in Xinjiang of China. The aims of this study were to explore the possible relationships among the soil magnetic parameters and thereby improve the understanding of influence of urbanization on soil properties. Eighty surface soil samples at the depth of 0–10 cm were collected from 29 July to 4 August 2013. The results showed that the magnetic minerals in surface soil were dominated by ferromagnetic minerals. Spatially, the magnetic susceptibility ( χ LF), anhys-teretic remanent magnetization susceptibility ( χ ARM), saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM) and “soft” isothermal remanent magnetization (SOFT) were found to be most dominant in the new northern urban area B (N-B), followed by built-up areas (U), suburban agricultural land (F), and then the new northern urban area A (N-A). The values of χ LF, χ ARM, SIRM and SOFT were higher in the areas with high intensities of human ac-tivities and around the main roads. Meanwhile, the property “hard” isothermal remanent magnetization (HIRM) followed the order of U>N-B>F>N-A. Built-up areas had an average pH value of 7.93, which was much higher than that in the new northern urban areas as well as in suburban agricultural land, due to the increased urban pollutant emissions. The average value of soil organic matter content in the whole study area was 34.69 g/kg, and the values in the new northern urban areas were much higher than those in the suburban agricultural land and built-up areas. For suburban agricultural land, soil organic matter content was significantly negatively correlated with χ LF, and had no correlation with other magnetic parameters, since the soil was frequently ploughed. In the new northern urban areas (N-A and N-B), there were significant positive correlations of soil organic matter contents with χ ARM, SIRM, SOFT and HIRM, because natural grasslands were not frequently turned over. For the built-up areas, soil organic matter contents were significantly positively correlated with χ LF, χ ARM, SIRM and SOFT, but not significantly correlated with frequency-dependent susceptibility (χ FD, expressed as a percentage) and HIRM, because the soil was not frequently turned over or influenced by human activities. The results showed that soil magnetic characteristics are related to the soil turnover time.
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Cited: Baidu(13)
Impacts of land disturbance and restoration on runoff production and sediment yield inthe Chinese Loess Plateau
Ning AI, Tianxing WEI, Qingke ZHU, Fangfang QIANG, Huan MA, Wei QIN
Journal of Arid Land    2017, 9 (1): 76-86.   DOI: 10.1007/s40333-016-0088-6
Abstract896)   HTML1)    PDF(pc) (408KB)(1119)       Save

Land disturbance and land restoration are important factors influencing runoff production and sediment yield in the semi-arid loess regions of China.This study compared the runoff production and sediment yield during the early stage after land disturbance (ESLD) with those during restoring stage after land disturbance (RSLD). Grey relational analysis was used to analyse the importance of each one of the influencing factors (vegetation, rainfall, soil and topography) in affecting the runoff production and sediment yield. Our results showed that during ESLD, topography was the most critical factor controlling the runoff production, while soil was the most important factor controllingthe sediment yield. DuringRSLD, vegetation was more important in affecting runoff production, while rainfall was more important in affecting sediment yield. In additional, this study demonstrated that both the runoff production and the sediment yield can be effectively reduced by restoring vegetation on severely-disturbed lands, thus providing an important theoretical basis for better implementations of the Grain for Green Program.Our results revealed that the vegetation types of Hippophaerhamnoides+Pinustabulaeformis and H.rhamnoides are better plant selections for land restoration in this area, especially for relatively gentle slopes (i.e., less than 20 degrees).

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Cited: Baidu(10)
Vertical distribution of sand-dust aerosols and the relationships with atmospheric environment
Jie ZHANG, XingMing LI
Journal of Arid Land    2012, 4 (4): 357-368.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1227.2012.00357
Abstract2586)      PDF(pc) (1648KB)(2578)       Save
The vertical distribution of aerosols in the troposphere is important for determining their effects on cli-mate. The vertical distribution of aerosols under different atmospheric conditions in the free troposphere was di-rectly observed using a surface micro-pulse LIDAR (MPL) and a TP/WVP-3000 microwave radiometer at the Semi-Arid Climate & Environment Observatory of Lanzhou University (SACOL, 35.95°N, 104.10°E) in the western Loess Plateau, China, in the spring of 2008. The results showed two possible transportation paths of a sandstorm from May 1 to May 4 in 2008. In one path, sand-dust aerosols were transported toward the east from the Taklimakan Desert to the Badain Jaran Desert and the Tengger Desert by a westerly wind and then toward the southeast to Jingtai and Lanzhou. A weak aerosol index (AI) indicated another possible transport path toward the east from the Taklimakan Desert to the Qaidam Basin and through the Tibetan Plateau eastward to SACOL. The aerosol profile of sandstorm processes over the SACOL area displayed three patterns: a single peak distribution under stable at-mospheric conditions, indicating urban aerosol distribution; an exponential decrease under unstable atmospheric conditions in the presence of a sandstorm; and a slight change in the mixed layer during the first and last stages of the sandstorm, indicative of thorough mixing during lifting and deposition stages. Analyses of the aerosol layer height (ALH) showed that there are two types of ALH diurnal variation. The ALH during the first sandstorm stage was complex and disordered, and affected by atmospheric circulation. While the ALH had obvious diurnal variation in the other stage, the ALH and aerosol extinction coefficient (AEC) had a single peak, and was higher in the af-ternoon and lower in the morning. In the second case the ALH was in agreement with the atmospheric boundary layer height (BLH) variation. As a result of the development of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) during day and maintenance at night, ALH during sandstorm-free days showed obvious diurnal variations. Multiple vertical distribu-tion patterns of sand-dust aerosols will result in different climate effects; therefore, the vertical distribution patterns can be used to parameterize climate and aerosol models.
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Cited: Baidu(7)
Interactions between wind and water erosion change sediment yield and particle distribution under simulated conditions
TUO Dengfeng, XU Mingxiang, ZHAO Yunge, GAO Liqian
Journal of Arid Land    2015, 7 (5): 590-598.   DOI: 10.1007/s40333-015-0128-7
Abstract1479)      PDF(pc) (201KB)(2031)       Save
Wind and water erosion are among the most important causes of soil loss, and understanding their interactions is important for estimating soil quality and environmental impacts in regions where both types of erosion occur. We used a wind tunnel and simulated rainfall to study sediment yield, particle-size distribution and the fractal dimension of the sediment particles under wind and water erosion. The experiment was conducted with wind erosion firstly and water erosion thereafter, under three wind speeds (0, 11 and 14 m/s) and three rainfall intensities (60, 80 and 100 mm/h). The results showed that the sediment yield was positively correlated with wind speed and rainfall intensity ( P<0.01). Wind erosion exacerbated water erosion and increased sediment yield by 7.25%–38.97% relative to the absence of wind erosion. Wind erosion changed the sediment particle distribution by influencing the micro-topography of the sloping land surface. The clay, silt and sand contents of eroded sediment were also positively correlated with wind speed and rainfall intensity ( P<0.01). Wind erosion increased clay and silt contents by 0.35%–19.60% and 5.80%–21.10%, respectively, and decreased sand content by 2.40%–8.33%, relative to the absence of wind erosion. The effect of wind erosion on sediment particles became weaker with increasing rainfall intensities, which was consistent with the variation in sediment yield. However, particle-size distribution was not closely correlated with sediment yield ( P>0.05). The fractal dimension of the sediment particles was significantly different under different intensities of water erosion ( P<0.05), but no significant difference was found under wind and water erosion. The findings reported in this study implicated that both water and wind erosion should be controlled to reduce their intensifying effects, and the controlling of wind erosion could significantly reduce water erosion in this wind-water erosion crisscross region.
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Cited: Baidu(6)
Monophyly and infrageneric variation of Corispermum L. (Chenopodiaceae), evidence from sequence data psbB-psbH, rbcL and ITS
JuanJuan XUE, MingLi ZHANG
Journal of Arid Land    2011, 3 (4): 240-253.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1227.2011.00240
Abstract3309)      PDF(pc) (1766KB)(5788)       Save
Corispermum is one of the most problematic taxonomic genera in Chenopodiaceae. To understand the phylogeny and infrageneric variation of Corispermum, we sequenced the nuclear ribosomal ITS region and two chloroplast DNA regions (rbcL and psbB-psbH) of 22 species and three varieties of Corispermum and the related genus Agriophyllum. Several representative species of Salsola, Suaeda, Chenopodium, Kalidium and Camphorosma served as outgroups. Our phylogenetic trees confirm that the tribe Corispermeae is monophyletic, Corispermum and Agriophyllum have a close relationship. Corispermum is demonstrated to be monophyletic, and contains at least four clades which, consequently, are served as the foundation of the infrageneric sectional variation of Corispermum, in terms of a combination of molecular data and morphological characters. The evolution of morphological characters for fruit wing and apex, two important characters in generic classification, is consistent with the sectional division of Corispermum, especially to the East Asian and Chinese taxa.
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Cited: Baidu(5)
Effects of freezing intensity on soil solution nitrogen and microbial biomass nitrogen in an alpine grassland ecosystem on the Tibetan Plateau, China
YANG Zhaoping, GAO Jixi, YANG Meng, SUN Zhizhong
Journal of Arid Land    2016, 8 (5): 749-759.   DOI: 10.1007/s40333-016-0012-0
Abstract1206)      PDF(pc) (235KB)(1155)       Save
The change of freeze-thaw pattern of the Tibetan Plateau under climate warming is bound to have a profound impact on the soil process of alpine grassland ecosystem; however, the research on the impact of the freeze-thaw action on nitrogen processes of the alpine grassland ecosystem on the Tibetan Plateau has not yet attracted much attention. In this study, the impact of the freezing strength on the soil nitrogen components of alpine grassland on the Tibetan Plateau was studied through laboratory freeze-thaw simulation experiments. The 0–10 cm topsoil was collected from the alpine marsh meadow and alpine meadow in the permafrost region of Beilu River. In the experiment, the soil samples were cultivated at –10°C, –7°C, –5°C, –3°C and –1°C, respectively for three days and then thawed at 2°C for one day. The results showed that after the freeze-thaw process, the soil microbial biomass nitrogen significantly decreased while the dissolved organic nitrogen and inorganic nitrogen significantly increased. When the freezing temperature was below –7°C, there was no significant difference between the content of nitrogen components, which implied a change of each nitrogen component might have a response threshold toward the freezing temperature. As the freeze-thaw process can lead to the risk of nitrogen loss in the alpine grassland ecosystem, more attention should be paid to the response of the soil nitrogen cycle of alpine grasslands on the Tibetan Plateau to the freeze-thaw process.
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Cited: Baidu(5)
Runoff of arid and semi-arid regions simulated and projected by CLM-DTVGM and its multi-scale fluctuations as revealed by EEMD analysis
NING Like, XIA Jun, ZHAN Chesheng, ZHANG Yongyong
Journal of Arid Land    2016, 8 (4): 506-520.   DOI: 10.1007/s40333-016-0126-4
Abstract1214)      PDF(pc) (802KB)(1481)       Save
Runoff is a major component of the water cycle, and its multi-scale fluctuations are important to water resources management across arid and semi-arid regions. This paper coupled the Distributed Time Variant Gain Model (DTVGM) into the Community Land Model (CLM 3.5), replacing the TOPMODEL-based method to simulate runoff in the arid and semi-arid regions of China. The coupled model was calibrated at five gauging stations for the period 1980–2005 and validated for the period 2006–2010. Then, future runoff (2010–2100) was simulated for different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) emission scenarios. After that, the spatial distributions of the future runoff for these scenarios were discussed, and the multi-scale fluctuation characteristics of the future annual runoff for the RCP scenarios were explored using the Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) analysis method. Finally, the decadal variabilities of the future annual runoff for the entire study area and the five catchments in it were investigated. The results showed that the future annual runoff had slowly decreasing trends for scenarios RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5 during the period 2010–2100, whereas it had a non-monotonic trend for the RCP 4.5 scenario, with a slow increase after the 2050s. Additionally, the future annual runoff clearly varied over a decadal time scale, indicating that it had clear divisions between dry and wet periods. The longest dry period was approximately 15 years (2040–2055) for the RCP 2.6 scenario and 25 years (2045–2070) for the RCP 4.5 scenario. However, the RCP 8.5 scenario was predicted to have a long dry period starting from 2045. Under these scenarios, the water resources situation of the study area will be extremely severe. Therefore, adaptive water management measures addressing climate change should be adopted to proactively confront the risks of water resources.
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Cited: Baidu(5)
A cladistic scenario of Southern Pacific biogeographical history based on Nothofagus dispersal and vicariance analysis
MingLi ZHANG
Journal of Arid Land    2011, 3 (2): 104-113.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1227.2011.00104
Abstract2485)      PDF(pc) (253KB)(2109)       Save
Nothofagus is regarded as a key group for interpreting Southern Pacific biogeographical history. Based on a molecular phylogenetic tree, a quantitative dispersal-vicariance analysis (DIVA) of the genus is presented. The results indicate that the ancestral area of Nothofagus is a broad realm almost including the total extant distribution pattern of the genus rather than a so-named center of origin. Integrated with the paleogeography, the time of origin and subsequent diversification is inferred to have started in the Late Cretaceous. Most vicariance and dispersal events should be contained in that period. Vicariance events versus dispersal events play a dominant rule in speciation. The dispersal events are hypothesized to happen from the Late Cretaceous to Eocene in terms of the geological history. Rich fossils are collected in the Eocene. South America, comprising three subgenera of Nothofagus, should be considered as a diversification region, in which the distribution of the species of subgenus Fuscospora and subgenus Nothofagus are explained by dispersal events during the Late Cretaceous-Late Eocene.
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Cited: Baidu(4)