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Journal of Arid Land  2022, Vol. 14 Issue (1): 82-101    DOI: 10.1007/s40333-021-0071-8
Geography, geology and natural resources in Central Asia (Guest Editorial Board Member: Prof. Dr. XIAO Wenjiao)     
Neoproterozoic I-type granites in the Central Tianshan Block (NW China): geochronology, geochemistry, and tectonic implications
SONG Yujia1, LIU Xijun1,2,3,*(), XIAO Wenjiao2, ZHANG Zhiguo1, LIU Pengde1, XIAO Yao1, LI Rui1, WANG Baohua1, LIU Lei1,3, HU Rongguo1
1Guangxi Key Laboratory of Hidden Metallic Ore Deposits Exploration, College of Earth Sciences, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin 541004, China
2Xinjiang Research Center for Mineral Resources, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011, China
3Collaborative Innovation Center for Exploration of Nonferrous Metal Deposits and Efficient Utilization of Resource, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin 541004, China
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Abstract  

The Central Tianshan Block is one of numerous microcontinental blocks within the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) that overlies Precambrian basement rocks. Constraining the evolution of these ancient basement rocks is central to understanding the accretionary and collisional tectonics of the CAOB, and their place within the Rodinia supercontinent. However, to date, the timing and tectonic settings in which the basement rocks in the Central Tianshan Block formed are poorly constrained, with only sparse geochemical and geochronological data from granitic rocks within the northern segment of the block. Here, we present a systematic study combining U-Pb geochronology, whole-rock geochemistry, and the Sr-Nd isotopic compositions of newly-identified granitic gneisses from the Bingdaban area of Central Tianshan Block. The analyzed samples yield a weighted mean Neoproterozoic 206Pb/238U ages of 975-911 Ma. These weakly-peraluminous granitic rocks show a common geochemical I-type granite affinity. The granitic gneisses are calc-alkaline and enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILEs) and light rare earth elements (LREEs), but they are depleted in high field strength elements (HFSEs); these characteristics are similar to those of typical subduction-related magmatism. All samples show initial (87Sr/86Sr)(t) ratios between 0.705136 and 0.706745. Values for ƐNd(t) in the granitic gneisses are in the range from -5.7 to -1.2, which correspond to Nd model ages of 2.0-1.7 Ga, indicating a role for Mesoproterozoic to Paleoproterozoic rocks in the generation of the granitic protoliths. The documented geochemical features indicate that the protoliths for the gneisses have a similar petrogenesis and magmatic source, which may reflect partial melting of thickened crust with the addition of small amounts of mantle-derived material. The Central Tianshan Block probably constitute part of an exterior orogen that developed along the margin of the Rodinian supercontinent during the Early Neoproterozoic and underwent a transition from subduction to syn-collision compression at 975-911 Ma.



Key wordsNeoproterozoic I-type granites      geochronology      Central Tianshan Block      Rodinian supercontinent      Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB)     
Received: 31 October 2020      Published: 31 January 2022
Corresponding Authors: LIU Xijun     E-mail: xijunliu@glut.edu.cn
Cite this article:

SONG Yujia, LIU Xijun, XIAO Wenjiao, ZHANG Zhiguo, LIU Pengde, XIAO Yao, LI Rui, WANG Baohua, LIU Lei, HU Rongguo. Neoproterozoic I-type granites in the Central Tianshan Block (NW China): geochronology, geochemistry, and tectonic implications. Journal of Arid Land, 2022, 14(1): 82-101.

URL:

http://jal.xjegi.com/10.1007/s40333-021-0071-8     OR     http://jal.xjegi.com/Y2022/V14/I1/82

Fig. 1 Geological map of the Central Tianshan Block and adjacent regions (a), and tectonic map of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (b) as well as sample locations (c). CTB, Central Tianshan Block; KYB, Kazakhstan-Yili Block; NTB, North Tianshan Belt; STB, South Tianshan Belt (modified after Gao et al. (2015) and Liu et al. (2020)).
Fig. 2 Simplified geologic map of the Bingdaban area, Central Tianshan Block (modified after Yang et al. (2008) and Liu et al. (2020))
Fig. 3 Field and petrographic photographs of the studied Neoproterozoic granitic gneisses in the Bingdaban area. (a), field photograph; (b), hand specimens; (c)-(d), photomicrographs. Qtz, Quartz; Pl, Plagioclase; Bt, Biotite.
Sample
spot
Th
(10-6)
U
(10-6)
Th/
U
Isotopic ratio Age (Ma)
207Pb/
206Pb
±1σ 207Pb/
235U
±1σ 206Pb/
238U
±1σ 207Pb/
206Pb
±1σ 207Pb/
235U
±1σ 206Pb/
238U
±1σ
Sample BD-01-18
01 833 5167 0.16 0.0708 0.0009 1.6045 0.0262 0.1637 0.0015 954 25 972 10 977 9
02 1051 7802 0.13 0.0698 0.0009 1.5692 0.0268 0.1627 0.0017 924 27 958 11 972 9
03 351 6771 0.05 0.0712 0.0011 1.6006 0.0290 0.1628 0.0016 963 31 970 11 972 9
04 1007 3442 0.29 0.0667 0.0015 1.4980 0.0352 0.1618 0.0018 828 46 930 14 967 10
05 153 624 0.25 0.0675 0.0018 1.5425 0.0434 0.1658 0.0021 854 56 948 17 989 11
06 497 2238 0.22 0.0695 0.0014 1.5588 0.0382 0.1615 0.0019 915 47 954 15 965 11
07 987 10,876 0.09 0.0717 0.0014 1.6177 0.0382 0.1630 0.0023 989 39 977 15 974 12
08 1032 5441 0.19 0.0747 0.0017 1.7052 0.0421 0.1652 0.0017 1061 46 1010 16 986 10
09 2281 7064 0.32 0.0731 0.0013 1.6637 0.0384 0.1645 0.0024 1017 32 995 15 982 13
10 636 1622 0.39 0.0723 0.0017 1.6264 0.0388 0.1629 0.0018 994 47 980 15 973 10
Sample BD-06-18
01 330 9571 0.03 0.0738 0.0025 1.5996 0.0448 0.1585 0.0028 1037 67 970 18 948 16
02 739 13,358 0.06 0.0686 0.0013 1.5346 0.0331 0.1612 0.0019 887 40 944 13 963 10
03 601 3840 0.16 0.0676 0.0018 1.4961 0.0422 0.1591 0.0020 855 55 929 17 952 11
04 1985 9660 0.21 0.0686 0.0016 1.5409 0.0373 0.1620 0.0019 887 47 947 15 968 11
05 613 3185 0.19 0.0714 0.0016 1.5762 0.0409 0.1591 0.0022 969 47 961 16 952 12
06 958 6379 0.15 0.0695 0.0016 1.5319 0.0390 0.1589 0.0021 915 48 943 16 951 12
07 1050 3678 0.29 0.0678 0.0015 1.4934 0.0354 0.1589 0.0018 861 44 928 14 951 10
08 605 3224 0.19 0.0671 0.0014 1.4759 0.0348 0.1586 0.0018 843 44 921 14 949 10
09 324 6249 0.05 0.0690 0.0016 1.5170 0.0458 0.1592 0.0036 898 48 937 18 952 20
10 510 8641 0.06 0.0709 0.0015 1.5589 0.0359 0.1588 0.0016 954 44 954 14 950 9
11 1075 6424 0.17 0.0702 0.0017 1.5807 0.0406 0.1626 0.0020 1000 48 963 16 971 11
12 536 3584 0.15 0.0660 0.0018 1.4514 0.0411 0.1589 0.0021 807 56 910 17 951 12
13 279 1944 0.14 0.0674 0.0032 1.4266 0.0618 0.1551 0.0025 850 98 900 26 929 14
14 855 6150 0.14 0.0669 0.0016 1.4688 0.0364 0.1589 0.0019 835 49 918 15 951 11
15 560 16,520 0.03 0.0665 0.0014 1.4306 0.0372 0.1553 0.0027 833 39 902 16 931 15
16 506 7731 0.07 0.0658 0.0014 1.4460 0.0346 0.1590 0.0023 798 44 908 14 951 13
17 2874 7997 0.36 0.0660 0.0014 1.4514 0.0356 0.1590 0.0024 806 44 910 15 951 13
18 362 5416 0.07 0.0630 0.0014 1.3894 0.0401 0.1588 0.0030 709 46 884 17 950 17
19 409 5139 0.08 0.0707 0.0015 1.5532 0.0363 0.1588 0.0020 950 44 952 14 950 11
20 678 4453 0.15 0.0674 0.0017 1.5004 0.0388 0.1611 0.0021 852 52 931 16 963 12
21 650 2156 0.30 0.0677 0.0021 1.4826 0.0462 0.1587 0.0021 861 65 923 19 950 11
22 607 1743 0.35 0.0672 0.0022 1.4931 0.0502 0.1612 0.0023 856 67 928 20 964 13
23 950 6663 0.14 0.0671 0.0014 1.4762 0.0356 0.1590 0.0023 843 43 921 15 951 13
24 763 7414 0.10 0.0667 0.0013 1.4362 0.0319 0.1559 0.0019 828 45 904 13 934 11
25 451 4732 0.10 0.0661 0.0012 1.4480 0.0306 0.1588 0.0019 809 44 909 13 950 11
26 2977 9476 0.31 0.0675 0.0012 1.4795 0.0304 0.1587 0.0018 854 42 922 12 949 10
27 709 2595 0.27 0.0686 0.0016 1.4998 0.0389 0.1587 0.0020 887 82 930 16 950 11
28 377 16,764 0.02 0.0686 0.0012 1.5018 0.0325 0.1588 0.0020 887 37 931 13 950 11
29 1719 10,931 0.16 0.0686 0.0014 1.5505 0.0357 0.1630 0.0018 887 43 951 14 974 10
30 359 9742 0.04 0.0689 0.0014 1.5157 0.0374 0.1588 0.0024 894 44 937 15 950 13
31 694 3330 0.21 0.0687 0.0016 1.5585 0.0426 0.1630 0.0023 900 48 954 17 973 13
32 1694 6807 0.25 0.0693 0.0017 1.5252 0.0399 0.1588 0.0019 907 56 941 16 950 11
33 2182 7524 0.29 0.0690 0.0017 1.5258 0.0416 0.1589 0.0021 898 50 941 17 951 12
Sample
spot
Th
(10-6)
U
(10-6)
Th/
U
Isotopic ratio Age (Ma)
207Pb/
206Pb
±1σ 207Pb/
235U
±1σ 206Pb/
238U
±1σ 207Pb/
206Pb
±1σ 207Pb/
235U
±1σ 206Pb/
238U
±1σ
Sample BD-46-18
01 1012 3661 0.28 0.0702 0.0017 1.4782 0.0451 0.1519 0.0027 1000 51 921 18 911 15
02 397 3350 0.12 0.0741 0.0023 1.5592 0.0535 0.1515 0.0026 1044 58 954 21 910 15
03 1435 6293 0.23 0.0711 0.0017 1.4983 0.0404 0.1515 0.0020 961 50 930 16 909 11
04 488 2787 0.18 0.0700 0.0019 1.4765 0.0425 0.1516 0.0020 929 56 921 17 910 11
05 577 3918 0.15 0.0662 0.0017 1.4019 0.0402 0.1516 0.0024 813 50 890 17 910 14
06 411 3481 0.12 0.0688 0.0018 1.4625 0.0424 0.1518 0.0024 892 54 915 17 911 14
07 469 3019 0.16 0.0690 0.0012 1.4507 0.0296 0.1519 0.0015 900 38 910 12 911 9
08 403 4058 0.10 0.0690 0.0012 1.4496 0.0289 0.1518 0.0015 900 69 910 12 911 9
09 315 3412 0.09 0.0726 0.0018 1.5150 0.0374 0.1516 0.0020 1003 50 936 15 910 11
10 609 5710 0.11 0.0700 0.0016 1.4673 0.0490 0.1516 0.0040 928 47 917 20 910 22
11 457 3872 0.12 0.0702 0.0011 1.4746 0.0280 0.1517 0.0014 1000 33 920 11 910 8
12 1312 2902 0.45 0.0690 0.0018 1.4458 0.0327 0.1531 0.0019 898 53 908 14 918 11
13 362 2747 0.13 0.0678 0.0013 1.4264 0.0325 0.1519 0.0018 861 41 900 14 912 10
14 737 2481 0.30 0.0681 0.0014 1.4290 0.0303 0.1517 0.0016 872 45 901 13 911 9
15 252 1892 0.13 0.0699 0.0015 1.4681 0.0357 0.1515 0.0015 928 46 917 15 910 9
16 641 2534 0.25 0.0683 0.0012 1.4326 0.0297 0.1516 0.0017 880 37 903 12 910 9
17 739 4140 0.18 0.0696 0.0014 1.4575 0.0328 0.1515 0.0019 917 45 913 14 909 10
18 2718 5361 0.51 0.0716 0.0016 1.5030 0.0387 0.1517 0.0020 973 46 932 16 911 11
19 1084 5033 0.22 0.0695 0.0013 1.4598 0.0316 0.1517 0.0015 917 39 914 13 910 9
20 796 5149 0.15 0.0705 0.0015 1.4765 0.0340 0.1516 0.0016 943 43 921 14 910 9
21 617 2884 0.21 0.0719 0.0017 1.5041 0.0392 0.1518 0.0019 983 49 932 16 911 11
22 311 2349 0.13 0.0703 0.0015 1.4729 0.0364 0.1517 0.0019 1000 44 919 15 910 10
23 565 3314 0.17 0.0705 0.0013 1.4980 0.0331 0.1540 0.0019 943 44 930 13 923 10
24 540 3194 0.17 0.0707 0.0014 1.4812 0.0355 0.1516 0.0021 948 40 923 15 910 12
25 752 2950 0.26 0.0706 0.0019 1.4767 0.0431 0.1516 0.0022 946 56 921 18 910 12
26 433 2502 0.17 0.0706 0.0015 1.4826 0.0330 0.1526 0.0018 946 43 923 13 915 10
27 368 3469 0.11 0.0685 0.0012 1.4412 0.0307 0.1524 0.0018 883 32 906 13 914 10
28 226 3699 0.06 0.0746 0.0021 1.5603 0.0447 0.1517 0.0018 1057 58 955 18 910 10
29 652 3893 0.17 0.0729 0.0020 1.5259 0.0444 0.1513 0.0021 1013 49 941 18 908 12
30 1351 3107 0.43 0.0734 0.0022 1.5441 0.0497 0.1517 0.0019 1026 61 948 20 911 11
31 419 3153 0.13 0.0714 0.0023 1.4935 0.0499 0.1518 0.0023 970 67 928 20 911 13
32 218 2382 0.09 0.0719 0.0025 1.5051 0.0531 0.1521 0.0024 983 71 932 22 913 14
Table 1 LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb isotopic analysis of the granitic gneisses from the Bingdaban area in the Central Tianshan Block
Element Granitic gneisses
Sample BD-01-18 Sample BD-06-18 Sample BD-46-18
Major element (%)
SiO2 70.89 69.21 70.08
TiO2 0.32 0.36 0.36
Al2O3 14.90 16.30 14.16
Fe2O3T 2.04 2.33 2.65
MnO 0.03 0.03 0.06
MgO 0.74 0.86 0.69
CaO 1.69 3.07 1.35
Na2O 4.57 4.63 3.55
K2O 3.16 2.32 4.70
P2O5 0.08 0.12 0.04
LOI 1.48 0.93 1.46
Total 99.92 100.17 99.10
FeOT/MgO 2.47 2.44 3.46
K2O/Na2O 0.69 0.50 1.32
Mg# 45.90 46.24 37.74
A/CNK 1.06 1.04 1.06
Trace element (×10-6)
Ga 44.10 31.83 30.69
Rb 42.14 32.11 92.32
Sr 87.52 141.29 50.71
Y 4.18 4.08 24.33
Zr 108.96 96.98 133.73
Nb 4.60 4.69 17.13
Ba 417.63 287.87 499.06
La 24.94 21.34 47.81
Ce 49.98 43.07 109.04
Pr 5.35 4.55 12.23
Nd 18.76 15.65 43.40
Sm 3.06 2.57 8.90
Eu 0.69 0.94 0.79
Gd 2.83 2.45 9.63
Tb 0.33 0.32 1.63
Dy 1.45 1.51 8.99
Ho 0.29 0.30 1.71
Er 0.78 0.76 4.78
Tm 0.12 0.11 0.74
Yb 0.82 0.70 5.02
Lu 0.10 0.08 0.60
Hf 4.56 4.06 7.34
Ta 0.86 0.60 4.00
Pb 18.58 33.51 66.35
Th 12.48 8.02 45.63
U 2.73 2.86 12.01
a(La/Yb)N 21.71 22.02 6.84
a(La/Sm)N 5.26 5.37 3.47
a(Gd/Yb)N 2.84 2.91 1.59
∑REE 109.52 94.32 255.27
LREE 102.78 88.11 222.17
HREE 6.74 6.22 33.10
LREE/HREE 15.25 14.17 6.71
δEu 0.71 1.14 0.26
Table 2 Major and trace element compositions of the granitic gneisses from the Bingdaban area in the Central Tianshan Block
Element Granitic gneisses
Sample BD-01-18 Sample BD-06-18 Sample BD-46-18
Rb (×10-6) 42.10 32.10 92.30
Sr (×10-6) 87.50 141.0 40.70
Sm (×10-6) 3.06 2.57 8.90
Nd (×10-6) 18.80 15.70 43.40
87Sr/86Sr(i) 0.706745 0.706647 0.705136
147Sm/144Nd 0.100223 0.100817 0.126137
143Nd/144Nd(t) 0.511959 0.511977 0.511924
ƐNd(t) -2.16 -1.20 -5.72
fSm/Nd -0.49 -0.49 -0.36
TDM1 (Ma) 1606 1589 2143
TDM2 (Ma) 1730 1704 2038
Table 3 Sr-Nd isotopic analysis results of the granitic gneisses from the Bingdaban area in the Central Tianshan Block
Fig. 4 Concordia diagrams showing zircon U-Pb isotopic analyses (a, c, and e) and chondrite-normalized REE patterns (b, d, and f) from the Bingdaban granitic gneisses in the Central Tianshan Block. REE, rare earth element; MSWD, mean square of weighted deviate.
Fig. 5 Total-alkali versus silica diagram (Middlemost, 1994) (a), A/NK versus A/CNK diagram (b) (Maniar and Piccoli, 1989), P2O5 versus SiO2 diagram (c) (Chappell and White, 1992), and SiO2 versus K2O diagram (d) (Peccerillo and Taylor, 1976)
Fig. 6 Chondrite-normalized REE (a) and primitive mantle-normalized trace element diagrams (b) for the studied granitic gneisses. Normalizing values for chondrite and primitive mantle are from Taylor and McLennan (1985) and Sun and McDonough (1989), respectively (reference data from Gao et al. (2015)). N-MORB, normal mid-ocean ridge basalt; E-MORB, enriched mid-ocean ridge basalt; OIB, ocean island basalt. Grey shaded area represents data source from Gao et al. (2015).
Fig. 7 Plots of ƐNd(t) versus age for zircons from the studied granitic gneisses in the Central Tianshan Block. The granitoid or continental ''slope'' is defined with the parameter fSm/Nd=0.4 (indicating the average continental or granitoid isotopic evolution). The Tianshan dashed field represents the isotopic region of Tianshan basement rocks (reference data from the basement rocks in the northern Xinjiang; after Hu et al. (2000)). The isotope fields for the four terranes are distinguished by different colored lines. CHUR, chondritic uniform reservoir.
Fig. 8 Major and trace element tectonic discrimination diagrams for the studied granitic gneisses. (a), R1 versus R2 diagram of Batchelor and Bowden (1985); (b), Nb versus Y diagram (Pearce et al., 1984). WPG, within plate granitoid; VAG, volcanic arc granitoid; Syn-COLG, syn-collision granitoid; ORG, ocean ridge granitoid. R1=1000×(4×SiO2/60.09-11×(Na2O×2/61.98+K2O×2/94.2)-2×(Fe2O3T×2/159.69+TiO2/79.9)) (Batchelor and Bowden, 1985); R2=1000×(6×CaO/56.08+2×MgO/40.3+Al2O3×2/101.96) (Batchelor and Bowden, 1985).
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