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Journal of Arid Land  2021, Vol. 13 Issue (2): 189-204    DOI: 10.1007/s40333-021-0093-1
Research article     
Spatial variability and temporal stability of actual evapotranspiration on a hillslope of the Chinese Loess Plateau
ZHANG Yongkun1, HUANG Mingbin2,*()
1State Key Laboratory of Plateau Ecology and Agriculture, Qinghai University, Xining 810016, China
2Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University, Yangling 712100, China
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Abstract  

Actual evapotranspiration (ETa) is a key component of water balance. This study aimed to investigate the spatial variability and time stability of ETa along a hillslope and to analyze the key factors that control the spatiotemporal variability of ETa. The potential evaporation, surface runoff and 0-480 cm soil water profile were measured along a 243 m long transect on a hillslope of the Loess Plateau during the normal (2015) and wet (2016) water years. ETa was calculated using water balance equation. Results indicated that increasing precipitation during the wet water year did not alter the spatial pattern of ETa along the hillslope; time stability analysis showed that a location with high time stability of ETa could be used to estimate the mean ETa of the hillslope. Time stability of ETa was positively correlated with elevation (P<0.05), indicating that, on a hillslope in a semi-arid area, elevation was the primary factor influencing the time stability of ETa.



Key wordsrelative difference      water balance      surface runoff      soil texture      semi-arid areas     
Received: 09 September 2019      Published: 10 March 2021
Corresponding Authors: HUANG Mingbin     E-mail: hmingbin@yahoo.com
About author: HUANG Mingbin (E-mail: hmingbin@yahoo.com)
Cite this article:

ZHANG Yongkun, HUANG Mingbin. Spatial variability and temporal stability of actual evapotranspiration on a hillslope of the Chinese Loess Plateau. Journal of Arid Land, 2021, 13(2): 189-204.

URL:

http://jal.xjegi.com/10.1007/s40333-021-0093-1     OR     http://jal.xjegi.com/Y2021/V13/I2/189

Fig. 1 Sampling sites in (a) Liudaogou watershed and (b) layout of 38 soil water content monitoring locations spaced at 5 m intervals on a hillslope. Surface runoff experimental plots and evaporation pans at the upper (sampling site, 1-13), middle (sampling site, 14-27), and lower (sampling site, 28-38) slope positions.
Property Soil profile
(cm)
Statistical parameter Slop position
Upper Middle Lower
ELE (m) Max 1170 1151 1140
Min 1152 1141 1131
Mean±SD 1159±4.72a 1146±3.83b 1136±3.13c
Slope (°) Max 24.32 16.56 9.21
Min 34.10 25.43 16.23
Mean±SD 27.69±2.90a 22.69±3.09b 12.12±2.07c
Ks (cm/h) 0-30 Max 6.20 7.66 6.31
Min 1.57 1.97 0.89
Mean±SD 3.00±1.52a 3.76±1.78b 2.52±1.65a
BD (g/cm3) 0-30 Max 1.61 1.73 1.74
Min 1.25 1.32 1.13
Mean±SD 1.39±0.09a 1.48±0.1a 1.53±0.11a
LAIm (m2/m2) Max 1.86 2.32 2.96
Min 0.62 0.61 0.55
Mean±SD 1.13±0.33a 1.56±0.22b 1.47±0.25b
Clay (%) 0-200 Max 16.62 16.26 16.80
Min 9.42 12.33 5.46
Mean±SD 13.56±2.24a 14.70±1.2a 12.97±3.15a
Silt (%) 0-200 Max 40.33 41.71 42.44
Min 26.55 31.58 15.59
Mean±SD 35.26±4.94a 37.20±2.89a 31.57±7.28a
Sand (%) 0-200 Max 64.02 55.65 78.95
Min 43.32 42.69 40.76
Mean±SD 51.19±7.01a 48.10±4.00a 55.46±10.38a
Table 1 Soil properties, topographic attributes, and vegetation features at different slope positions along the hillslope
Fig. 2 Distributions of daily precipitation and temperature in the study area during the observation period in 2015 and 2016
Fig. 3 Comparisons of potential evapotranspiration (PET) values respectively calculated by evaporation pan and penman equation at the upper slope position on the hillslope
Fig. 4  <b>Daily potential evapotranspiration (PET) at the upper, middle, and lower slope positions during the normal (2015, a) and wet (2016, b) water years. Vertical bars represent standard deviations, the same lowercase letters labelled over the boxes indicate no significant difference at <i>P</i><0.05 level.</b><br/> </td> </tr> <tr> <td height="10"></td> </tr> <tr> <td height="25" class="J_zhaiyao"> <a class="figureClass" href="http://jal.xjegi.com/fileup/1674-6767/FIGURE/2021-13-2/Images/1674-6767-13-2-189/img_6.png"> <img src="http://jal.xjegi.com/fileup/1674-6767/FIGURE/2021-13-2/Images/1674-6767-13-2-189/thumbnail/img_6.png" align="middle" border=0> </a> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" align="left" class="J_zhaiyao_en"> <b>Fig. 5</b> <b>Variations in surface runoff depth at different slope positions in 2015 and 2016. Vertical bars represent standard deviations, the same lowercase letters labelled over the boxes indicate no significant difference at <i>P</i><0.05 level.</b><br/> </td> </tr> <tr> <td height="10"></td> </tr> <tr> <td height="25" class="J_zhaiyao"> <a class="figureClass" href="http://jal.xjegi.com/fileup/1674-6767/FIGURE/2021-13-2/Images/1674-6767-13-2-189/img_7.png"> <img src="http://jal.xjegi.com/fileup/1674-6767/FIGURE/2021-13-2/Images/1674-6767-13-2-189/thumbnail/img_7.png" align="middle" border=0> </a> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" align="left" class="J_zhaiyao_en"> <b>Fig. 6</b> <b>Median and interquartile ranges of soil water content (SWC) in the time domains of 2015 (a and c) and 2016 (b and d) for various depths and sampling locations</b><br/> </td> </tr> <tr> <td height="10"></td> </tr> <tr> <td height="25" class="J_zhaiyao"> <a class="figureClass" href="http://jal.xjegi.com/fileup/1674-6767/FIGURE/2021-13-2/Images/1674-6767-13-2-189/img_8.png"> <img src="http://jal.xjegi.com/fileup/1674-6767/FIGURE/2021-13-2/Images/1674-6767-13-2-189/thumbnail/img_8.png" align="middle" border=0> </a> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" align="left" class="J_zhaiyao_en"> <b>Fig. 7</b> <b>Variations in accumulated actual evapotranspiration (ET<sub>a</sub>) in each sampling location along the hillslope during normal (2015) and wet (2016) water years</b><br/> </td> </tr> <tr> <td height="10"></td> </tr> <tr> <td height="25" class="J_zhaiyao"> <a class='inline' href="#inline_content2062"> <img src="http://jal.xjegi.com/images/table-icon.gif" align="middle" border=0"> </a> <div style='display:none'> <div id='inline_content2062' style='padding:10px; background:#fff;'> <table> <thead> <tr> <th valign="middle" align="center" style="border-top:1px solid #000;border-bottom:1px solid #000;">Parameter</th> <th valign="middle" align="center" style="border-top:1px solid #000;border-bottom:1px solid #000;">Maximum</th> <th valign="middle" align="center" style="border-top:1px solid #000;border-bottom:1px solid #000;">Minimum</th> <th valign="middle" align="center" style="border-top:1px solid #000;border-bottom:1px solid #000;">Mean</th> <th valign="middle" align="center" style="border-top:1px solid #000;border-bottom:1px solid #000;">SD</th> <th valign="middle" align="center" style="border-top:1px solid #000;border-bottom:1px solid #000;">Kurtosis</th> <th valign="middle" align="center" style="border-top:1px solid #000;border-bottom:1px solid #000;">Skewness</th> </tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr> <td valign="middle" align="center" style="border-top:1px solid #000;">MRD (%)</td> <td valign="middle" align="right" style="border-top:1px solid #000;">43.12</td> <td valign="middle" align="right" style="border-top:1px solid #000;">-20.92</td> <td valign="middle" align="right" style="border-top:1px solid #000;">0.00</td> <td valign="middle" align="right" style="border-top:1px solid #000;">15.86</td> <td valign="middle" align="right" style="border-top:1px solid #000;">1.373</td> <td valign="middle" align="right" style="border-top:1px solid #000;">1.265</td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="middle" align="center">SDRD (%)</td> <td valign="middle" align="right">113.40</td> <td valign="middle" align="right">21.44</td> <td valign="middle" align="right">42.10</td> <td valign="middle" align="right">20.24</td> <td valign="middle" align="right">5.061</td> <td valign="middle" align="right">2.131</td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="middle" align="center" style="border-bottom:1px solid #000;">ITS (%)</td> <td valign="middle" align="right" style="border-bottom:1px solid #000;">121.32</td> <td valign="middle" align="right" style="border-bottom:1px solid #000;">22.10</td> <td valign="middle" align="right" style="border-bottom:1px solid #000;">44.32</td> <td valign="middle" align="right" style="border-bottom:1px solid #000;">21.54</td> <td valign="middle" align="right" style="border-bottom:1px solid #000;">5.738</td> <td valign="middle" align="right" style="border-bottom:1px solid #000;">2.287</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> </div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" align="left" class="J_zhaiyao_en"> <b>Table 2</b> Descriptive statistics of MRD, SDRD, and ITS values in ET<sub>a</sub> in each sampling location along the hillslope<br/> </td> </tr> <tr> <td height="10"></td> </tr> <tr> <td height="25" class="J_zhaiyao"> <a class="figureClass" href="http://jal.xjegi.com/fileup/1674-6767/FIGURE/2021-13-2/Images/1674-6767-13-2-189/img_9.png"> <img src="http://jal.xjegi.com/fileup/1674-6767/FIGURE/2021-13-2/Images/1674-6767-13-2-189/thumbnail/img_9.png" align="middle" border=0> </a> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" align="left" class="J_zhaiyao_en"> <b>Fig. 8</b> <b>Ranked mean relative difference (MRD) of actual evapotranspiration (ET<sub>a</sub>) and the index of time stability (ITS) for each monitoring location on the hillslope. Vertical bars represent ±1 standard deviation of relative difference (SDRD). The dashed curve indicates ITS, and the most time stable location (MTSL) with the lowest ITS values is marked in grey.</b><br/> </td> </tr> <tr> <td height="10"></td> </tr> <tr> <td height="25" class="J_zhaiyao"> <a class="figureClass" href="http://jal.xjegi.com/fileup/1674-6767/FIGURE/2021-13-2/Images/1674-6767-13-2-189/img_10.png"> <img src="http://jal.xjegi.com/fileup/1674-6767/FIGURE/2021-13-2/Images/1674-6767-13-2-189/thumbnail/img_10.png" align="middle" border=0> </a> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" align="left" class="J_zhaiyao_en"> <b>Fig. 9</b> <b>Predicted versus measured ET<sub>a</sub> on the hillslope. The dashed line is the 1:1 line.</b><br/> </td> </tr> <tr> <td height="10"></td> </tr> <tr> <td height="25" class="J_zhaiyao"> <a class='inline' href="#inline_content2065"> <img src="http://jal.xjegi.com/images/table-icon.gif" align="middle" border=0"> </a> <div style='display:none'> <div id='inline_content2065' style='padding:10px; background:#fff;'> <table> <thead> <tr> <th valign="middle" align="center" style="border-top:1px solid #000;border-bottom:1px solid #000;"/> <th valign="middle" align="center" style="border-top:1px solid #000;border-bottom:1px solid #000;">MRD</th> <th valign="middle" align="center" style="border-top:1px solid #000;border-bottom:1px solid #000;">SDRD</th> <th valign="middle" align="center" style="border-top:1px solid #000;border-bottom:1px solid #000;">ITS</th> <th valign="middle" align="center" style="border-top:1px solid #000;border-bottom:1px solid #000;">BD</th> <th valign="middle" align="center" style="border-top:1px solid #000;border-bottom:1px solid #000;">K<sub>s</sub></th> <th valign="middle" align="center" style="border-top:1px solid #000;border-bottom:1px solid #000;">ELE</th> <th valign="middle" align="center" style="border-top:1px solid #000;border-bottom:1px solid #000;">LAI<sub>m</sub></th> <th valign="middle" align="center" style="border-top:1px solid #000;border-bottom:1px solid #000;">SWS</th> <th valign="middle" align="center" style="border-top:1px solid #000;border-bottom:1px solid #000;">SCC</th> <th valign="middle" align="center" style="border-top:1px solid #000;border-bottom:1px solid #000;">PMCC</th> </tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr> <td valign="middle" align="center" style="border-top:1px solid #000;">MRD</td> <td valign="middle" align="center" style="border-top:1px solid #000;">1.000</td> <td valign="middle" align="center" style="border-top:1px solid #000;"/> <td valign="middle" align="center" style="border-top:1px solid #000;"/> <td valign="middle" align="center" style="border-top:1px solid #000;"/> <td valign="middle" align="center" style="border-top:1px solid #000;"/> <td valign="middle" align="center" style="border-top:1px solid #000;"/> <td valign="middle" align="center" style="border-top:1px solid #000;"/> <td valign="middle" align="center" style="border-top:1px solid #000;"/> <td valign="middle" align="center" style="border-top:1px solid #000;"/> <td valign="middle" align="center" style="border-top:1px solid #000;"/> </tr> <tr> <td valign="middle" align="center">SDRD</td> <td valign="middle" align="right">0.787<sup>**</sup></td> <td valign="middle" align="center">1.000</td> <td valign="middle" align="center"/> <td valign="middle" align="center"/> <td valign="middle" align="center"/> <td valign="middle" align="center"/> <td valign="middle" align="center"/> <td valign="middle" align="center"/> <td valign="middle" align="center"/> <td valign="middle" align="center"/> </tr> <tr> <td valign="middle" align="center">ITS</td> <td valign="middle" align="right">0.784<sup>**</sup></td> <td valign="middle" align="right">0.996<sup>**</sup></td> <td valign="middle" align="center">1.000</td> <td valign="middle" align="center"/> <td valign="middle" align="center"/> <td valign="middle" align="center"/> <td valign="middle" align="center"/> <td valign="middle" align="center"/> <td valign="middle" align="center"/> <td valign="middle" align="center"/> </tr> <tr> <td valign="middle" align="center">BD</td> <td valign="middle" align="right">0.066</td> <td valign="middle" align="right">-0.055</td> <td valign="middle" align="right">-0.041</td> <td valign="middle" align="center">1.000</td> <td valign="middle" align="center"/> <td valign="middle" align="center"/> <td valign="middle" align="center"/> <td valign="middle" align="center"/> <td valign="middle" align="center"/> <td valign="middle" align="center"/> </tr> <tr> <td valign="middle" align="center">K<sub>s</sub></td> <td valign="middle" align="right">0.240</td> <td valign="middle" align="right">0.324<sup>*</sup></td> <td valign="middle" align="right">0.308</td> <td valign="middle" align="center">0.187</td> <td valign="middle" align="right">1.000</td> <td valign="middle" align="center"/> <td valign="middle" align="center"/> <td valign="middle" align="center"/> <td valign="middle" align="center"/> <td valign="middle" align="center"/> </tr> <tr> <td valign="middle" align="center">ELE</td> <td valign="middle" align="right">0.375<sup>*</sup></td> <td valign="middle" align="right">0.335<sup>*</sup></td> <td valign="middle" align="right">0.331<sup>*</sup></td> <td valign="middle" align="center">-0.543<sup>**</sup></td> <td valign="middle" align="right">0.007</td> <td valign="middle" align="right">1.000</td> <td valign="middle" align="center"/> <td valign="middle" align="center"/> <td valign="middle" align="center"/> <td valign="middle" align="center"/> </tr> <tr> <td valign="middle" align="center">LAI<sub>m</sub></td> <td valign="middle" align="right">-0.306</td> <td valign="middle" align="right">-0.309</td> <td valign="middle" align="right">-0.308</td> <td valign="middle" align="center">0.426<sup>**</sup></td> <td valign="middle" align="right">0.191</td> <td valign="middle" align="right">-0.698<sup>**</sup></td> <td valign="middle" align="right">1.000</td> <td valign="middle" align="center"/> <td valign="middle" align="center"/> <td valign="middle" align="center"/> </tr> <tr> <td valign="middle" align="center">SWS</td> <td valign="middle" align="right">0.504<sup>**</sup></td> <td valign="middle" align="right">0.316</td> <td valign="middle" align="right">0.312</td> <td valign="middle" align="center">0.029</td> <td valign="middle" align="right">0.165</td> <td valign="middle" align="right">0.150</td> <td valign="middle" align="right">-0.099</td> <td valign="middle" align="center">1.000</td> <td valign="middle" align="center"/> <td valign="middle" align="center"/> </tr> <tr> <td valign="middle" align="center">SCC</td> <td valign="middle" align="right">0.140</td> <td valign="middle" align="right">0.022</td> <td valign="middle" align="right">0.032</td> <td valign="middle" align="center">-0.502<sup>**</sup></td> <td valign="middle" align="right">-0.057</td> <td valign="middle" align="right">0.466<sup>**</sup></td> <td valign="middle" align="right">-0.316</td> <td valign="middle" align="center">0.265</td> <td valign="middle" align="center">1.000</td> <td valign="middle" align="center"/> </tr> <tr> <td valign="middle" align="center" style="border-bottom:1px solid #000;">PMCC</td> <td valign="middle" align="right" style="border-bottom:1px solid #000;">0.322<sup>*</sup></td> <td valign="middle" align="right" style="border-bottom:1px solid #000;">0.015</td> <td valign="middle" align="right" style="border-bottom:1px solid #000;">0.011</td> <td valign="middle" align="center" style="border-bottom:1px solid #000;">0.239</td> <td valign="middle" align="right" style="border-bottom:1px solid #000;">0.328<sup>*</sup></td> <td valign="middle" align="right" style="border-bottom:1px solid #000;">-0.070</td> <td valign="middle" align="right" style="border-bottom:1px solid #000;">0.081</td> <td valign="middle" align="center" style="border-bottom:1px solid #000;">0.370<sup>*</sup></td> <td valign="middle" align="center" style="border-bottom:1px solid #000;">0.217</td> <td valign="middle" align="center" style="border-bottom:1px solid #000;">1.000</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> </div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" align="left" class="J_zhaiyao_en"> <b>Table 3</b> Matrix of Spearman rank correlation coefficients for factors influencing the mean relative difference (MRD), standard deviation of relative difference (SDRD) and index of time stability (ITS) of actual evapotranspiration (ET<sub>a</sub>)<br/> </td> </tr> <tr> <td height="10"></td> </tr> <tr> <td height="25" class="J_zhaiyao"> <a class='inline' href="#inline_content2066"> <img src="http://jal.xjegi.com/images/table-icon.gif" align="middle" border=0"> </a> <div style='display:none'> <div id='inline_content2066' style='padding:10px; background:#fff;'> <table> <thead> <tr> <th valign="middle" align="center" style="border-top:1px solid #000;" colspan="2">Parameter</th> <th valign="middle" align="center" style="border-top:1px solid #000;border-bottom:1px solid #000;">T<sub>max </sub>(°C)</th> <th valign="middle" align="center" style="border-top:1px solid #000;border-bottom:1px solid #000;">T<sub>min </sub>(°C)</th> <th valign="middle" align="center" style="border-top:1px solid #000;border-bottom:1px solid #000;">Rs (MJ/m<sup>2</sup>)</th> <th valign="middle" align="center" style="border-top:1px solid #000;border-bottom:1px solid #000;">Ws (m/s)</th> <th valign="middle" align="center" style="border-top:1px solid #000;border-bottom:1px solid #000;">Td (°C)</th> </tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr> <td valign="middle" align="center" style="border-top:1px solid #000;border-bottom:1px solid #000;" rowspan="3">PET</td> <td valign="middle" align="center" style="border-top:1px solid #000;">Pearson correlation</td> <td valign="middle" align="center" style="border-top:1px solid #000;">0.816<sup>**</sup></td> <td valign="middle" align="center" style="border-top:1px solid #000;">0.700<sup>**</sup></td> <td valign="middle" align="center" style="border-top:1px solid #000;">0.890<sup>**</sup></td> <td valign="middle" align="center" style="border-top:1px solid #000;">0.185<sup>**</sup></td> <td valign="middle" align="center" style="border-top:1px solid #000;">0.429<sup>**</sup></td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="middle" align="center">Sig. (2-tailed)</td> <td valign="middle" align="center">0.000</td> <td valign="middle" align="center">0.000</td> <td valign="middle" align="center">0.000</td> <td valign="middle" align="center">0.000</td> <td valign="middle" align="center">0.000</td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="middle" align="center" style="border-bottom:1px solid #000;"><i>N</i></td> <td valign="middle" align="center" style="border-bottom:1px solid #000;">1025</td> <td valign="middle" align="center" style="border-bottom:1px solid #000;">1025</td> <td valign="middle" align="center" style="border-bottom:1px solid #000;">1025</td> <td valign="middle" align="center" style="border-bottom:1px solid #000;">1025</td> <td valign="middle" align="center" style="border-bottom:1px solid #000;">1025</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> </div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" align="left" class="J_zhaiyao_en"> <b>Table 4</b> Matrix of Spearman rank correlation coefficients between potential evapotranspiration (PET) and five climatic factors<br/> </td> </tr> </table> </div> </div> <div class="tab-pane text-left" id="tab3"> <div id="ReferenceTab"> <table width="100%" border="0" align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0"> <tr> <td height=10></td> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td valign='top' align='right' width="33">[1]  </td> <td class="J_zhaiyao_en"> <span class='magtech_ref_source'> Baker J M. 1990. 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