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Journal of Arid Land  2016, Vol. 8 Issue (4): 618-631    DOI: 10.1007/s40333-016-0124-6
Research Articles     
Charcoal production through selective logging leads to degradation of dry woodlands: a case study from Mutomo District, Kenya
Geoffrey M NDEGWA1,2,3*, Udo NEHREN2, Friederike GRüNINGER1, Miyuki IIYAMA3,4, Dieter ANHUF1
1 Department of Physical Geography, University of Passau, Passau 40, 94036, Germany;
2 Institute for Technology and Resources Management in the Tropics and Subtropics, TH Köln University of Applied Sciences, Cologne 2, 50679, Germany;
3 The World Agroforestry Centre, Nairobi 30677-00100, Kenya;
4 The Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS) 1-1 Owashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki Prefecture 305-0851, Japan
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Abstract  Provision of woodfuel is an important ecosystem service of dry forests and woodlands. However, charcoal production through selective logging of preferred hardwood species has the potential to alter the physiognomic composition of the residual or re-growth woodlands and may lead to their deterioration and degradation. This study, conducted through forest inventory in Mutomo District in Kenya, assessed the impact of charcoal production on unprotected dry woodlands in terms of tree density, targeted species basal area, species richness, evenness and Shannon diversity. The parameters of the disturbed woodlands were evaluated for significant differences with those of the neighbouring protected Tsavo East National Park, which served as a reference for an ecologically undisturbed ecosystem. By evaluating a consequence of tree harvesting for charcoal production, this study confirmed the overall significant differences between the protected and unprotected woodlands in all the tested parameters. To confirm if the differences in the land-covers of the woodlands had any influence on their degradation, all mentioned parameters were compared between the four differentiated classes and their respective control plots in the protected areas. At the “land-cover level”, the statistically significant difference in the basal area of tree species preferred for charcoal production between the protected and unprotected open trees confirms that the class with a high density of large mature trees is the prime target of charcoal producers. In addition, there seems to be a general trend of lower values of tree species richness, evenness and Shannon diversity for the unprotected woodlands subjected to charcoal production. On the other hand, the disturbed woodlands display the potential to recover through their comparably high saplings density. The findings make an important contribution to the discourse on the impact of charcoal production in dry woodlands, a topic that is highly controversial among researchers.

Key wordsnighttime sap flow      stomatal conductance      vapor pressure deficit      driving factors      desert riparian forest     
Received: 23 July 2015      Published: 10 August 2016
Corresponding Authors: Geoffrey M NDEGWA     E-mail:
Cite this article:

Geoffrey M NDEGWA, Udo NEHREN, Friederike GRüNINGER, Miyuki IIYAMA, Dieter ANHUF. Charcoal production through selective logging leads to degradation of dry woodlands: a case study from Mutomo District, Kenya. Journal of Arid Land, 2016, 8(4): 618-631.

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