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Journal of Arid Land  2021, Vol. 13 Issue (11): 1163-1182    DOI: 10.1007/s40333-021-0069-2
Geography, geology and natural resources in Central Asia (Guest Editorial Board Member:Prof. Dr. XIAO Wenjiao)     
Geochronology, geochemistry, and Sr-Nd isotopes of Early Carboniferous magmatism in southern West Junggar, northwestern China: Implications for Junggar oceanic plate subduction
LIU Pengde1, LIU Xijun1,2,3,*(), XIAO Wenjiao2, ZHANG Zhiguo1, SONG Yujia1, XIAO Yao1, LIU Lei1,2,3, HU Rongguo1, WANG Baohua1,3,*
1Guangxi Key Laboratory of Hidden Metallic Ore Deposits Exploration, College of Earth Sciences, Guilin University of Technology,, Guilin 541004, China
2Xinjiang Research Center for Mineral Resources, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011, China
3Collaborative Innovation Center for Exploration of Nonferrous Metal Deposits and Efficient Utilization of Resource, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin 541004, China
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West Junggar is a key area for understanding intra-oceanic plate subduction and the final closure of the Junggar Ocean. Knowledge of the Carboniferous tectonic evolution of the Junggar Ocean region is required for understanding the tectonic framework and accretionary processes in West Junggar, Central Asian Orogenic Belt. A series of Early Carboniferous volcanic and intrusive rocks, namely, basaltic andesite, andesite, dacite, and diorite, occur in the Mayile area of southern West Junggar, northwestern China. Our new LA-ICPMS zircon U-Pb geochronological data reveal that diorite intruded at 334 (±1) Ma, and that basaltic andesite was erupted at 334 (±4) Ma. These intrusive and volcanic rocks are calc-alkaline, display moderate MgO (1.62%-4.18%) contents and Mg# values (40-59), and low Cr (14.5×10-6-47.2×10-6) and Ni (7.5×10-6-34.6×10-6) contents, and are characterized by enrichment in light rare-earth elements and large-ion lithophile elements and depletion in heavy rare-earth elements and high-field-strength elements, meaning that they belong to typical subduction-zone island-arc magma. The samples show low initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (range of 0.703649-0.705008), positive εNd(t) values (range of 4.8-6.2 and mean of 5.4), and young TDM Nd model ages ranging from 1016 to 616 Ma, indicating a magmatic origin from depleted mantle involving partial melting of 10%-25% garnet and spinel lherzolite. Combining our results with those of previous studies, we suggest that these rocks were formed as a result of northwestward subduction of the Junggar oceanic plate, which caused partial melting of sub-arc mantle. We conclude that intra-oceanic arc magmatism was extensive in West Junggar during the Early Carboniferous.

Key wordsEarly Carboniferous magmatism      geochronology      geochemistry      Junggar Oceanic plate subdution      West Junggar      Central Asian Orogenic Belt     
Received: 31 October 2020      Published: 10 November 2021
Corresponding Authors: LIU Xijun (E-mail:
Cite this article:

LIU Pengde, LIU Xijun, XIAO Wenjiao, ZHANG Zhiguo, SONG Yujia, XIAO Yao, LIU Lei, HU Rongguo, WANG Baohua. Geochronology, geochemistry, and Sr-Nd isotopes of Early Carboniferous magmatism in southern West Junggar, northwestern China: Implications for Junggar oceanic plate subduction. Journal of Arid Land, 2021, 13(11): 1163-1182.

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Fig. 1 Geological map of West Junggar region (modified after Xiao et al. (2009), Yang et al. (2012), and Yang et al. (2019)). Age data are from Jian et al. (2005), Xu et al. (2006), Gu et al. (2009), Geng et al. (2011), Yang et al. (2012), and Ren et al. (2014).
Fig. 2 Simplified geological map of Mayile area
Fig. 3 Typical field photographs of Mayile magmatic rocks. (a), panorama of Mayile; (b), andesite; (c), basaltic andesite; (d), diorite; (e), dacite.
Fig. 4 Representative photomicrographs of different Mayile magmatic rocks. (a), andesite; (b), basaltic andesite; (c), diorite; (d), dacite.
Table 1 LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb isotopic analysis of the basaltic andesite and diorite for Mayile magmatic rocks in West Junggar
Fig. 5 U-Pb concordia diagrams (a, c), chondrite-normalized REEs patterns (b, d) (Sun and McDonough, 1989), U/Yb vs. Hf diagrams (e) (Grimes et al., 2007), and representative cathodoluminescence (CL) images for zircons from the Mayile magmatic rocks (f). REEs, rare-earth elements; MSWD, mean square of weighted deviate.
Table 2 Major and trace element compositions of Mayile magmatic rocks in West Junggar
Fig. 6 Classification diagrams for Mayile magmatic rocks: (a) TAS diagram after Bas et al. (1986) and (b) Th vs. Co (Hastie et al., 2007) discrimination diagram of the analyzed samples showing geochemical classification of Mayile volcanic rocks and their intrusive rocks. CA, calc-alkaline series; HKCA, high-potassium calc-alkaline series; IAT, island arc tholeiite; SHO, shoshonite.
Fig. 7 SiO2 versus TFe2O3 (a), Al2O3 (b), MgO (c), and CaO (d) Harker diagrams for Early Carboniferous volcanic and intrusive rocks from Mayile area
Fig. 8 Chondrite-normalized (a) and primitive-mantle-normalized (b) trace-element patterns for volcanic and intrusive rocks from the Mayile area. Chondrite and primitive mantle values are from Sun and McDonough (1989). Vanuatu island arc sample data are from Beaumais et al. (2016). Values of OIB (ocean island basalt) and E-MORB (enriched mid-ocean ridge basalt) used are from Sun and McDonough (1989).
Rock type 19MY-03-1
(Basaltic andesite)
(Basaltic andesite)
19MY-06 (1)
19MY-06 (2)
Rb (×10-6) 42.5 42.5 26.0 31.9 15.6
Sr (×10-6) 910 910 370 360 767
Sm (×10-6) 4.16 4.16 4.47 5.54 3.10
Nd (×10-6) 20.3 20.3 16.9 21.8 13.7
87Rb/86Sr 0.130520 0.130520 0.195676 0.247256 0.056824
87Sr/86Sr 0.704271 0.704383 0.705941 0.705733 0.704477
±2σ 0.000027 0.000010 0.000009 0.000012 0.000010
87Sr/86Sr(t) 0.703649 0.703761 0.705008 0.704554 0.704207
147Sm/144Nd 0.126246 0.126246 0.162308 0.156245 0.138599
143Nd/144Nd 0.512798 0.512790 0.512809 0.512802 0.512779
±2σ 0.000003 0.000006 0.000003 0.000006 0.000004
143Nd/144Nd(t) 0.512521 0.512513 0.512453 0.512459 0.512476
ƐNd(t) 6.1 6.0 4.8 4.9 5.2
TDM1 (Ma) 616 630 1016 927 755
fSm/Nd -0.36 -0.36 -0.17 -0.21 -0.30
Table 3 Sr and Nd isotope ratios and Rb, Sr, Sm, and Nd contents of representative Mayile magmatic rocks in West Junggar
Fig. 9 Age-corrected (t=334 Ma) ƐNd(t) versus 87Sr/86Sr(t) ratios for Mayile volcanic and intrusive rocks compared with those for central West Junggar volcanic rocks and Vanuatu island arc rocks (Geng et al., 2011; Beaumais et al., 2016). Data for early to middle Proterozoic crust are from Hu et al. (2000).
Fig. 10 Diagrams of Nb vs. Zr (a), La/Sm vs. La (after Aldanmaz et al. (2000)) (b), Th/Yb vs. Ba/La (c), and Th/Yb vs. Ta/Yb (d) (after Pearce (1983)) for Mayile magmatic rocks. N-MORB, normal mid-ocean ridge basalt; E-MORB, enriched mid-ocean ridge basalt; DM, depleted mantel; PM, primitive mantle; MORB, mid-ocean ridge basalt; OIB, ocean island basalt; VAB, volcanic arc basalt; CA, calk alkaline; TH, tholiite; SHO, shoshonite.
Fig. 11 Hf/3-Th-Ta diagram (after Wood et al. (1979)) for Mayile volcanic rocks (a), and Rb vs. Y+Nb diagram (after Pearce (1996)) for Mayile intrusive rocks (b). N-MORB, normal mid-ocean ridge basalt; E-MORB, enriched mid-ocean ridge basalt; ALK WPB, alkali within-plate basalt; IAT, island-arc tholeiites; CAB, calc-alkaline basalts; syn-COLG, post-collisional granite; VAG, volcanic-arc granite; WPG, within-plate granite; ORG, ocean ridge granite.
Fig. 12 Proposed tectonic model for the Carboniferous magmatic province in West Junggar (Mayile). Regional tectonic model was from Jahn et al. (2004), Xiao et al. (2009), and Liu et al. (2017a). Slab window model was from Tang et al. (2010) and Geng et al. (2011). (a), Early Carboniferous: Junggar oceanic plate subducts northwestward during normal subduction; (b), Late Carboniferous: formation of a slab window in Junggar Ocean owing to subduction of a spreading ridge.
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