Please wait a minute...
Journal of Arid Land  2016, Vol. 8 Issue (1): 146-156    DOI: 10.1007/s40333-015-0017-0
Research Articles     
Comparison of three evapotranspiration models with eddy covariance measurements for a Populus euphratica Oliv. forest in an arid region of northwestern China
GAO Guanlong, ZHANG Xiaoyou*, YU Tengfei, LIU Bing
Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China
Download:   PDF(833KB)
Export: BibTeX | EndNote (RIS)      

Abstract  The accurate estimation of evapotranspiration (ET) in arid regions is important for improving the water use efficiency of vegetation. Based on successive observations from May to October of 2014, we estimated the ET of a Populus euphratica Oliv. forest during the growing season in an extremely arid region using the PM (Penman-Monteith), SW (Shuttleworth-Wallace) and SSW (an improved canopy transpiration model) models. Estimated ET values were compared with those of the eddy covariance measurements. Results indicated that the actual ET of the P. euphratica forest was always overestimated by the PM model. The accuracy of the SW model was higher than that of the PM model. However, some data were not easily obtained because of the complicated structure of the SW model. The newly proposed SSW model gave the most accurate ET values, and its accuracy was higher at hourly than at daily time scale. In conclusion, the SSW model is more suitable for sparse vegetation system at large scales in extremely arid regions.

Key wordswetland      landscape pattern      fragmentation      the type change tracker model      Heihe River     
Received: 25 March 2015      Published: 10 February 2016

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41271037) and the Youth Foundation of National Natural Science of China (41401033).

Cite this article:

GAO Guanlong, ZHANG Xiaoyou, YU Tengfei, LIU Bing. Comparison of three evapotranspiration models with eddy covariance measurements for a Populus euphratica Oliv. forest in an arid region of northwestern China. Journal of Arid Land, 2016, 8(1): 146-156.

URL:     OR

Ács F. 2003. A comparative analysis of transpiration and bare soil evaporation. Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 109: 139–162.

Allen R G, Pereira L S, Raes D, et al. 1998. Crop evapotranspiration-guidelines for computing crop water requirements. In: FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper, No. 56. Rome: FAO.

Allen S J, Grime V L. 1995. Measurements of transpiration from savannah shrubs using sap flow gauges. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 75(1–3): 23–41.

Brisson N, Itier B, L’Hotel J C, et al. 1998. Parameterisation of the Shuttleworth-Wallace model to estimate daily maximum transpiration for use in crop models. Ecological Modelling, 107(2–3): 159–169.

Burba G, Schmidt A, Scott RL, et al. 2012. Calculating CO2 and H2O eddy covariance fluxes from an enclosed gas analyzer using an instantaneous mixing ratio. Global Change Biology, 18(1): 385–399.

Campbell G S, Norman J M. 1989. The description and measurement of plant canopy structure. In: Russell G, Marshall B, Jarvis P G. Plant Canopies: Their Growth Form, and Function. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1–19.

Cienciala E, Eckersten H, Lindroth A, et al. 1994. Simulated and measured water uptake by Picea abies under non-limiting soil water conditions. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 71(1–2): 147–164.

Dolman A J. 1993. A multiple-source land surface energy balance model for use in general circulation models. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 65(1–2): 21–45.

Domingo F, Villagarcía L, Brenner A J, et al. 1999. Evapotranspiration model for semi-arid shrub-lands tested against data from SE Spain. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 95(2): 67–84.

Evett S R, Matthias A D, Warrick A W. 1994. Energy balance model of spatially variable evaporation from bare soil. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 58(6): 1604–1611.

Falge E, Baldocchi D, Olson R, et al. 2001. Gap filling strategies for defensible annual sums of net ecosystem exchange. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 107(1): 43–69.

Farahani H J, Ahuja L R. 1996. Evapotranspiration modeling of partial canopy/residue-covered fields. Transaction of the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, 39(6): 2051–2064.

Fisher J B, DeBiase T A, Qi Y, et al. 2005. Evapotranspiration models compared on a Sierra Nevada forest ecosystem. Environmental Modelling and Software, 20(6): 783–796.

Foken T, Göockede M, Mauder M, et al. 2004. Post-field data quality control. In: Lee X H, Massman W, Law B. Handbook of Micrometeorology: A Guide for Surface Flux Measurement and Analysis. New York: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 181–208.

Gasca-Tucker D L, Acreman M C, Agnew C T, et al. 2007. Estimating evaporation from a wet grassland. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 11(1): 270–282.

Gharsallah O, Facchi A, Gandolfi C. 2013. Comparison of six evapotranspiration models for a surface irrigated maize agro-ecosystem in Northern Italy. Agricultural Water Management, 130: 119–130.

Guan H D, Wilson J L. 2009. A hybrid dual-source model for potential evaporation and transpiration partitioning. Journal of Hydrology, 377(3–4): 405–416.

Hu Z M, Yu G R, Zhou Y L, et al. 2009. Partitioning of evapotranspiration and its controls in four grassland ecosystems: application of a two-source model. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 149(9): 1410–1420.

Hu Z M, Li S G, Yu G R, et al. 2013. Modeling evapotranspiration by combing a two-source model, a leaf stomatal model, and a light-use efficiency model. Journal of Hydrology, 501: 186–192.

Iritz Z, Lindroth A, Heikinheimo M, et al. 1999. Test of a modified Shuttleworth-Wallace estimate of boreal forest evaporation. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 98–99: 605–619.

Jung M, Reichstein M, Ciais P, et al. 2010. Recent decline in the global land evapotranspiration trend due to limited moisture supply. Nature, 467(7318): 951–954.

Katerji N, Perrier A. 1983. A model of actual evapotranspiration (ETR) for a ?eld of lucerne: the role of a crop coef?cient. Agronomie, 3(6): 513–521.

Kato T, Kimura R, Kamichika M. 2004. Estimation of evapotranspiration, transpiration ratio and water-use efficiency from a sparse canopy using a compartment model. Agricultural Water Management, 65(3): 173–191.

Li X Y, Yang P L, Ren S M, et al. 2010. Modeling cherry orchard evapotranspiration based on an improved dual-source model. Agricultural Water Management, 98(1): 12–18.

Lohammar T, Larsson S, Linder S, et al. 1980. FAST: simulation models of gaseous exchange in Scots pine. In: Persson T. Structure and Function of Northern Coniferous Forests: An Ecosystem Study. Stockholm: Swedish Natural Science Council, 32: 505–523.

Long D, Singh V P, Li Z L. 2011. How sensitive is SEBAL to changes in input variables, domain size and satellite sensor? Journal of Geophysical Research, 116(D21): D21107.

Lund M R, Soegaard H. 2003. Modelling of evaporation in a sparse millet crop using a two-source model including sensible heat advection within the canopy. Journal of Hydrology, 280(1–4): 124–144.

Mo X G. 1998. Modeling and validating water and energy transfer in soil-vegetation-atmosphere system. Acta Meteorological Sinica, 56(3): 323–332. (in Chinese)

Monteith J L. 1965. Evaporation and environment. The state and movement of water in living organisms. Symposia of the Society for Experimental Biology. England: Cambridge University Press, 19: 205–234.

Monteith J L, Unsworth M. 1990. Principles of Environmental Physics (2nd ed.). London: Butterworth-Heinemann, 286.

Moran M S, Scott R L, Keefer T O, et al. 2009. Partitioning evapotranspiration in semiarid grassland and shrubland ecosystems using time series of soil surface temperature. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 149(1): 59–72.

Nichols W D. 1992. Energy budgets and resistances to energy transport in sparsely vegetated rangeland. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 60(3–4): 221–247.

Oki T, Kanae S. 2006. Global hydrological cycles and world water resources. Science, 313(5790): 1068–1072.

Ortega-Farias S, Olioso A, Antonioletti R, et al. 2004. Evaluation of the Penman-Monteith model for estimating soybean evapotranspiration. Irrigation Science, 23(1): 1–9.

Ortega-Farias S, Olioso A, Fuentes S, et al. 2006. Latent heat flux over a furrow-irrigated tomato crop using Penman-Monteith equation with a variable surface canopy resistance. Agricultural Water Management, 82(3): 421–432.

Pereira L S, Perrier A, Allen R G, et al. 1999. Evapotranspiration: concepts and future trends. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering-ASCE, 125(2): 45–51.

Perrier A. 1975a. Physical study of evapotranspiration in natural conditions. I. Evaporation and summary of natural surface energy. Annales Agronomiques, 26: 1–18. (in French)

Perrier A. 1975b. Physical study of evapotranspiration in natural conditions. III. Actural and potential evapotranspiration of canopies. Annales Agronomiques, 26: 229–243. (in French)

Rana G, Katerji N, Mastrorilli M, et al. 1997a. A model for predicting actual evapotranspiration under soil water stress in a Mediterranean region. Theoretical and applied Climatology, 56(1–2): 45–55.

Rana G, Katerji N, Mastrorilli M, et al. 1997b. Validation of a model of actual evapotranspiration for water stressed soybeans. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 86(3–4): 215–224.

Scott R L, Huxman T E, Cable W L, et al. 2006. Partitioning of evapotranspiration and its relation to carbon dioxide exchange in a Chihuahuan Desert shrubland. Hydrological Processes, 20(15): 3227–3243.

Sene K J. 1994. Parameterisations for energy transfers from a sparse vine crop. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 71(1–2): 1–18.

Shi T T, Guan D X, Wang A Z, et al. 2008. Comparison of three models to estimate evapotranspiration for a temperate mixed forest. Hydrological Processes, 22(17): 3431–3443.

Shuttleworth W J, Wallace J S. 1985. Evaporation from sparse crops-an energy combination theory. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 111(469): 839–855.

Shuttleworth W J, Gurney R J. 1990. The theoretical relationship between foliage temperature and canopy resistance in sparse crops. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 116(492): 497–519.

Tanner C B, Jury W A. 1976. Estimating evaporation and transpiration from a row crop during incomplete cover. Agronomy Journal, 68(2): 209–243.

Teh C B S, Simmonds L P, Wheeler T R. 2001. Modelling the partitioning of solar radiation capture and evapotranspiration in intercropping systems. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Tropical Climatology, Meteorology and Hydrology. TCMH-2001, Brussels, Belgium: TCMH.

Tourula T, Heikinheimo M. 1998. Modelling evapotranspiration from a barley field over the growing season. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 91(3–4): 237–250.

Vickers D, Mahrt L. 1997. Quality control and flux sampling problems for tower and aircraft data. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 14(3): 512–526.

Villagarcía L, Were A, García M, et al. 2010. Sensitivity of a clumped model of evapotranspiration to surface resistance parameterisations: Application in a semi-arid environment. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 150(7–8): 1065–1078.

Wallace J S, Roberts J M, Sivakumar M V K. 1990. The estimation of transpiration from sparse dryland millet using stomatal conductance and vegetation area indices. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 51(1): 35–49.

Williams D G, Cable W, Hultine K, et al. 2004. Evapotranspiration components determined by stable isotope, sap flow and eddy covariance techniques. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 125(3–4): 241–258.

Yepez E A, Williams D G, Scott R L, et al. 2003. Partitioning overstory and understory evapotranspiration in a semiarid savanna woodland from the isotopic composition of water vapor. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 119(1–2): 53–68.

Yu G R, Sun X M. 2006. Principles of Flux Measurement in Terrestrial Ecosystems. Beijing: Higher Education Press, 137–142. (in Chinese)

Zhan X, Kustas W P, Humes K S. 1996. An inter-comparison study on models of sensible heat flux over partial canopy surfaces with remotely sensed surface temperature. Remote Sensing of Environment, 58(3): 242–256.

Zhang B Z, Kang S Z, Li F S, et al. 2008. Comparison of three evapotranspiration models to Bowen ration-energy balance method for a vineyard in an arid desert region of northwest China. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 148(10): 1629–1640.

Zhang Y S, Munkhtsetseg E, Kadota T, et al. 2005. An observational study of ecohydrology of a sparse grassland at the edge of the Eurasian Cryosphere in Mongolia. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 110(D14), doi: 10.1029/2004jd005474.

Zhou M C, Ishidaira H, Hapuarachchi H P, et al. 2006. Estimating potential evapotranspiration using Shuttleworth-Wallace model and NOAA-AVHRR NDVI data to feed a distributed hydrological model over the Mekong River basin. Journal of Hydrology, 327(1–2): 151–173.

Zhu G F, Su Y H, Li X, et al. 2013. Estimating actual evapotranspiration from an alpine grassland on Qinghai-Tibetan plateau using a two-source model and parameter uncertainty analysis by Bayesian approach. Journal of Hydrology, 476: 42–51.

Zhu G F, Su Y H, Li X, et al. 2014a. Modelling evapotranspiration in an alpine grassland ecosystem on Qinghai-Tibetan plateau. Hydrological Process, 28(3): 610–619.

Zhu G F, Lu L, Su Y H, et al. 2014b. Energy flux partitioning and evapotranspiration in a sub-alpine spruce forest ecosystem. Hydrological Processes, 28(19): 5093–5104.
[1] BAI Miao, LI Zhanling, HUO Pengying, WANG Jiawen, LI Zhanjie. Propagation characteristics from meteorological drought to agricultural drought over the Heihe River Basin, Northwest China[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2023, 15(5): 523-544.
[2] BOMBI Pierluigi. Potential impacts of climate change on Welwitschia mirabilis populations in the Namib Desert, southern Africa[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2018, 10(5): 663-672.
[3] Fan YANG, Laiming HUANG, Renmin YANG, Fei YANG, Decheng LI, Yuguo ZHAO, Jinling YANG, Feng LIU, Ganlin ZHANG. Vertical distribution and storage of soil organic and inorganic carbon in a typical inland river basin, Northwest China[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2018, 10(2): 183-201.
[4] Xin PAN, Yuanbo LIU, Xingwang FAN, Guojing GAN. Two energy balance closure approaches: applications and comparisons over an oasis-desert ecotone[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2017, 9(1): 51-64.
[5] Naima KOULL, Abdelmadjid CHEHMA. Soil characteristics and plant distribution in saline wetlands of Oued Righ, northeastern Algerian Sahara[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2016, 8(6): 948-959.
[6] Raafat H ABD EL-WAHAB. Plant assemblage and diversity variation with human disturbances in coastal habitats of the western Arabian Gulf[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2016, 8(5): 787-798.
[7] WANG Yamin, FENG Qi, KANG Xingcheng. Tree-ring-based reconstruction of temperature variability (1445–2011) for the upper reaches of the Heihe River Basin, Northwest China[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2016, 8(1): 60-76.
[8] QianQian GOU, JianJun QU, ZhiWen HAN. Microclimate and CO2 fluxes on continuous fine days in the Xihu desert wetland, China[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2015, 7(3): 318-327.
[9] RuiFeng ZHAO, ZuoLun XIE, LiHua ZHANG, Wen ZHU, Jie LI, Dan LIANG. Assessment of wetland fragmentation in the middle reaches of the Heihe River by the type change tracker model[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2015, 7(2): 177-188.
[10] JiLiang LIU, WenZhi ZHAO, FengRui LI. Shrub presence and shrub species effects on ground beetle assemblages (Carabidae, Curculionidae and Tenebrionidae) in a sandy desert, northwestern China[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2015, 7(1): 110-121.
[11] GuiXiang HE, KaiHui LI, XueJun LIU, YanMing GONG, YuKun HU. Fluxes of methane, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide in an alpine wetland and an alpine grassland of the Tianshan Mountains, China[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2014, 6(6): 717-724.
[12] ShengChun XIAO, HongLang XIAO, XiaoMei PENG, QuanYan TIAN. Intra-annual stem diameter growth of Tamarix ramosissima and association with hydroclimatic factors in the lower reaches of China’s Heihe River[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2014, 6(4): 498-510.
[13] YanYun NIAN, Xin LI, Jian ZHOU, XiaoLi HU. Impact of land use change on water resource allocation in the middle reaches of the Heihe River Basin in northwestern China[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2014, 6(3): 273-286.
[14] Wei ZHOU, ZhengGuo SUN, JianLong LI, ChengCheng GANG, ChaoBin ZHANG. Desertification dynamic and the relative roles of climate change and human activities in desertification in the Heihe River Basin based on NPP[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2013, 5(4): 465-479.
[15] Jia QIN, YongJian DING, JinKui WU, MingJie GAO, ShuHua YI, ChuanCheng ZHAO, BaiSheng YE, Man LI, ShengXia WANG. Understanding the impact of mountain landscapes on water balance in the upper Heihe River watershed in northwestern China[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2013, 5(3): 366-383.