Please wait a minute...
Journal of Arid Land  2019, Vol. 11 Issue (6): 928-938    DOI: 10.1007/s40333-019-0004-y
Orginal Article     
Natural vegetation restoration of Liaodong oak (Quercus liaotungensis Koidz.) forests rapidly increased the content and ratio of inert carbon in soil macroaggregates
SUN Lipeng1, HE Lirong2, WANG Guoliang1, JING Hang1, LIU Guobin1,*()
1 Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China;
2 Shaanxi Provincial Land Engineering Construction Group Co., Ltd., Xi'an 710075, China
Download: HTML     PDF(3789KB)
Export: BibTeX | EndNote (RIS)      

Abstract  

The lack of clarity of how natural vegetation restoration influences soil organic carbon (SOC) content and SOC components in soil aggregate fractions limits the understanding of SOC sequestration and turnover in forest ecosystems. The aim of this study was to explore how natural vegetation restoration affects the SOC content and ratio of SOC components in soil macroaggregates (>250 μm), microaggregates (53-250 μm), and silt and clay (<53 μm) fractions in 30-, 60-, 90- and 120-year-old Liaodong oak (Quercus liaotungensis Koidz.) forests, Shaanxi, China in 2015. And the associated effects of biomasses of leaf litter and different sizes of roots (0-0.5, 0.5-1.0, 1.0-2.0 and >2.0 mm diameter) on SOC components were studied too. Results showed that the contents of high activated carbon (HAC), activated carbon (AC) and inert carbon (IC) in the macroaggregates, microaggregates and silt and clay fractions increased with restoration ages. Moreover, IC content in the microaggregates in topsoil (0-20 cm) rapidly increased; peaking in the 90-year-old restored forest, and was 5.74 times higher than AC content. In deep soil (20-80 cm), IC content was 3.58 times that of AC content. Biomasses of 0.5-1.0 mm diameter roots and leaf litter affected the content of aggregate fractions in topsoil, while the biomass of >2.0 mm diameter roots affected the content of aggregate fractions in deep soil. Across the soil profiles, macroaggregates had the highest capacity for HAC sequestration. The effects of restoration ages on soil aggregate fractions and SOC content were less in deep soil than in topsoil. In conclusion, natural vegetation restoration of Liaodong oak forests improved the contents of SOC, especially IC within topsoil and deep soil. The influence of IC on aggregate stability was greater than the other SOC components, and the aggregate stability was significantly affected by the biomasses of litter, 0.5-1.0 mm diameter roots in topsoil and >2.0 mm diameter roots in deep soil. Natural vegetation restoration of Liaodong oak forests promoted SOC sequestration by soil macroaggregates.



Key wordsactivated carbon      leaf litter      soil organic carbon      soil aggregates      silt and clay      Shaanxi     
Received: 23 February 2018      Published: 10 December 2019
Corresponding Authors: Guobin LIU     E-mail: gbliu@ms.iswc.ac.cn
Cite this article:

SUN Lipeng, HE Lirong, WANG Guoliang, JING Hang, LIU Guobin. Natural vegetation restoration of Liaodong oak (Quercus liaotungensis Koidz.) forests rapidly increased the content and ratio of inert carbon in soil macroaggregates. Journal of Arid Land, 2019, 11(6): 928-938.

URL:

http://jal.xjegi.com/10.1007/s40333-019-0004-y     OR     http://jal.xjegi.com/Y2019/V11/I6/928

1 Alcantara V, Don A, Vesterdal L, et al. 2017. Stability of buried carbon in deep-ploughed forest and cropland soils-implications for carbon stocks. Scientific Reports, 7(1): 5511.
2 An S, Darboux F, Cheng M. 2013. Revegetation as an efficient means of increasing soil aggregate stability on the Loess Plateau (China). Geoderma, 209: 75-85.
3 Barthes B G, Kouakoua E, Larre-Larrouy M, et al. 2008. Texture and sesquioxide effects on water-stable aggregates and organic matter in some tropical soils. Geoderma, 143(1-2): 14-25.
4 Bi X, Li B, Nan B, et al. 2018. Characteristics of soil organic carbon and total nitrogen under various grassland types along a transect in a mountain-basin system in Xinjiang, China. Journal of Arid Land, 10(4): 612-627.
5 Callesen I, Harrison R, Stupak I, et al. 2016. Carbon storage and nutrient mobilization from soil minerals by deep roots and rhizospheres. Forest Ecology and Management, 359: 322-331.
6 Cambardella C A, Elliott E T. 1993. Carbon and nitrogen distribution in aggregates from cultivated and native grassland soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 57(4): 1071-1076.
7 Chan K Y, Bowman A, Oates A. 2001. Oxidizable organic carbon fractions and soil quality changes in an Oxic paleustalf under different pasture leys. Soil Science, 166(1): 61-67.
8 Cheng M, Xiang Y, Xue Z, et al. 2015. Soil aggregation and intra-aggregate carbon fractions in relation to vegetation succession on the Loess Plateau, China. Catena, 124: 77-84.
9 Elliott E T. 1986. Aggregate structure and carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in native and cultivated soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 50(3): 627-633.
10 Freschet G T, Roumet C. 2017. Sampling roots to capture plant and soil functions. Functional Ecology, 31(8): 1506-1518.
11 He N, Wen D, Zhu J, et al. 2017. Vegetation carbon sequestration in Chinese forests from 2010 to 2050. Global Change Biology, 23(4): 1575-1584.
12 Kelly C N, Benjamin J, Calderon F C, et al. 2017. Incorporation of biochar carbon into stable soil aggregates: the role of clay mineralogy and other soil characteristics. Pedosphere, 27(4): 694-704.
13 Li L Q, Wang D, Liu X Y, et al. 2014. Soil organic carbon fractions and microbial community and functions under changes in vegetation: a case of vegetation succession in karst forest. Environmental Earth Sciences, 71(8): 3727-3735.
14 Liao H K, Long J, Li J. 2016. Conversion of cropland to Chinese prickly ash orchard affects soil organic carbon dynamics in a karst region of southwest China. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 104(1): 15-23.
15 Lin G G, Zeng D H. 2017. Heterogeneity in decomposition rates and annual litter inputs within fine-root architecture of tree species: Implications for forest soil carbon accumulation. Forest Ecology and Management, 389: 386-394.
16 Sanaullah M, Chabbi A, Leifeld J, et al. 2011. Decomposition and stabilization of root litter in top- and subsoil horizons: what is the different? Plant and Soil, 338(1-2): 127-141.
17 Six J, Elliott E T, Paustian K. 1999. Aggregate and soil organic matter dynamics under conventional and no-tillage systems. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 63(5): 1350-1358.
18 Spaccini R, Zena A, Igwe C A, et al. 2001. Carbohydrates in water-stable aggregates and particle size fractions of forested and cultivated soils in two contrasting tropical ecosystems. Biogeochemistry, 53(1): 1-22.
19 Tisdall J M. 1994. Possible role of soil microorganisms in aggregation in soils. Plant and Soil, 159(1): 115-121.
20 Wang F M, Zhu W X, Chen H. 2016. Changes of soil C stocks and stability after 70-year afforestation in the Northeast USA. Plant and Soil, 401(1-2): 319-329.
21 Wang G L, Xue S, Liu F, et al. 2007. Nitrogen addition increases the production and turnover of the lower-order roots but not of the higher-order roots of Bothriochloa ischaemum. Plant and Soil, 415(1-2): 423-434.
22 Wei X R, Li X Z, Jia X X, et al. 2013. Accumulation of soil organic carbon in aggregates after afforestation on abandoned farmland. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 49(6): 637-646.
23 Wu G L, Liu Y, Yang Z, et al. 2017. Root channels to indicate the increase in soil matrix water infiltration capacity of arid reclaimed mine soils. Journal of Hydrology, 546: 133-139.
24 Xiang H L, Zhang L L, Wen D Z. 2015. Change of soil carbon fractions and water-stable aggregates in a forest ecosystem succession in south china. Forests, 6(8): 2703-2718.
25 Yao X, Jing H, Liang C T. 2017. Response of labile organic carbon content in surface soil aggregates to short-term nitrogen addition in artificial Pinus tabulaeformis forests. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 37(20): 1-8. (in Chinese)
26 Yuan Z Y, Chen H Y. 2010. Fine root biomass, production, turnover rates, and nutrient contents in boreal forest ecosystems in relation to species, climate, fertility, and stand age: literature review and meta-analyses. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 29(4): 204-221.
27 Zelenev V V, van Bruggen A, Semenov A M. 2000. "BACWAVE," a spatial-temporal model for traveling waves of bacterial populations in response to a moving carbon source in soil. Microbial Ecology, 40(3): 260-272.
28 Zhang H Q, Liu Z K, Chen H, et al. 2016. Symbiosis of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Pobinia pseudoacacia L. improves root tensile strength and soil aggregate stability. PloS ONE, 11(4): e01533784.
29 Zhang X, Han S J, Wang S Q, et al. 2016. Change of soil organic carbon fractions at different successional stages of Betula platyphylla forest in Changbai Mountains. Chinese Journal of Ecology, 35(2): 282-289.
30 Zhou H, Peng X, Peth S, et al. 2012. Effects of vegetation restoration on soil aggregate microstructure quantified with synchrotron-based micro-computed tomography. Soil and Tillage Research, 124: 17-23.
31 Zhu B B, Li P, Li Z B, et al. 2008. Dynamics of water stable aggregate in land degradation/ restoration process of Ziwuling forest farm. Journal of Northwest Sci-Tech University of Agriculture and Forestry: Natural Science Edition, 36(3): 124-128. (in Chinese)
[1] Batande Sinovuyo NDZELU, DOU Sen, ZHANG Xiaowei. Corn straw return can increase labile soil organic carbon fractions and improve water-stable aggregates in Haplic Cambisol[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2020, 12(6): 1018-1030.
[2] LIU Xiaoju, PAN Cunde. Effects of recovery time after fire and fire severity on stand structure and soil of larch forest in the Kanas National Nature Reserve, Northwest China[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2019, 11(6): 811-823.
[3] Jun WU, STEPHEN Yeboah, Liqun CAI, Renzhi ZHANG, Peng QI, Zhuzhu LUO, Lingling LI, Junhong XIE, Bo DONG. Effects of different tillage and straw retention practices on soil aggregates and carbon and nitrogen sequestration in soils of the northwestern China[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2019, 11(4): 567-578.
[4] Bisheng WANG, Lili GAO, Weishui YU, Xueqin WEI, Jing LI, Shengping LI, Xiaojun SONG, Guopeng LIANG, Dianxiong CAI, Xueping WU. Distribution of soil aggregates and organic carbon in deep soil under long-term conservation tillage with residual retention in dryland[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2019, 11(2): 241-254.
[5] Shaofei JIN, Xiaohong TIAN, Hesong WANG. Hierarchical responses of soil organic and inorganic carbon dynamics to soil acidification in a dryland agroecosystem, China[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2018, 10(5): 726-736.
[6] Xu BI, Bo LI, Bo NAN, Yao FAN, Qi FU, Xinshi ZHANG. Characteristics of soil organic carbon and total nitrogen under various grassland types along a transect in a mountain-basin system in Xinjiang, China[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2018, 10(4): 612-627.
[7] Xiaobo GU, Yuannong LI, Yadan DU. Film-mulched continuous ridge-furrow planting improves soil temperature, nutrient content and enzymatic activity in a winter oilseed rape field, Northwest China[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2018, 10(3): 362-374.
[8] Dongyan JIN, J MURRAY Phil, Xiaoping XIN, Yifei QIN, Baorui CHEN, Gele QING, Zhao ZHANG, Ruirui YAN. Attribution of explanatory factors for change in soil organic carbon density in the native grasslands of Inner Mongolia, China[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2018, 10(3): 375-387.
[9] Quanlin MA, Yaolin WANG, Yinke LI, Tao SUN, MILNE Eleanor. Carbon storage in a wolfberry plantation chronosequence established on a secondary saline land in an arid irrigated area of Gansu Province, China[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2018, 10(2): 202-216.
[10] Wen SHANG, Yuqiang LI, Xueyong ZHAO, Tonghui ZHANG, Quanlin MA, Jinnian TANG, Jing FENG, Na SU. Effects of Caragana microphylla plantations on organic carbon sequestration in total and labile soil organic carbon fractions in the Horqin Sandy Land, northern China[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2017, 9(5): 688-700.
[11] Jinling LYU, Hua LIU, Xihe WANG, OLAVE Rodrigo, Changyan TIAN, Xuejun LIU. Crop yields and soil organic carbon dynamics in a long-term fertilization experiment in an extremely arid region of northern Xinjiang, China[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2017, 9(3): 345-354.
[12] Shufang GUO, Yuchun QI, Qin PENG, Yunshe DONG, Yunlong HE, Zhongqing YAN, Liqin WANG. Influences of drip and flood irrigation on soil carbon dioxide emission and soil carbon sequestration of maize cropland in the North China Plain[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2017, 9(2): 222-233.
[13] WANG Haiming, SUN Jian, LI Weipeng, WU Jianbo, CHEN Youjun, LIU Wenhui. Effects of soil nutrients and climate factors on belowground biomass in an alpine meadow in the source region of the Yangtze-Yellow rivers, Tibetan Plateau of China[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2016, 8(6): 881-889.
[14] WANG Junqiang, LIU Lichao, QIU Xiaoqing, WEI Yujie, LI Yanrong, SHI Zhiguo. Contents of soil organic carbon and nitrogen in water-stable aggregates in abandoned agricultural lands in an arid ecosystem of Northwest China[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2016, 8(3): 350-363.
[15] TIAN Zheng, WU Xiuqin, DAI Erfu, ZHAO Dongsheng. SOC storage and potential of grasslands from 2000 to 2012 in central and eastern Inner Mongolia, China[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2016, 8(3): 364-374.