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Journal of Arid Land  2018, Vol. 10 Issue (4): 653-662    DOI: 10.1007/s40333-018-0099-6
Orginal Article     
Toxic metal enrichment characteristics and sources of arid urban surface soil in Yinchuan City,China
Mingxin ZHANG1,2, Xinwei LU1,*(), Dongqi SHI1, Huiyun PAN1,3
1 Department of Environmental Science, School of Geography and Tourism, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710119, China
2 School of Resource and Environment, Ningxia University, Yinchuan 750021, China
3 Institute of Resources and Environment, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454000, China
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To investigate the environmental quality of the urban surface soil inYinchuan City, the capital of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (Ningxia), China, wesampled surface soil and measured the concentrations of 8 toxic metals (Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, Co, Bi, Ni and V) using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The enrichment characteristics and sources of these toxic metals in the soil were analyzed by the enrichment factor (EF) and multivariate statistical analysis. The results showed that the mean concentrations of these toxic metals in the soil samples were 25.0, 109.1, 16.8, 26.0, 37.2, 2.7, 25.3 and 59.9 mg/kg for Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, Co, Bi, Niand V, respectively, which were 1.2, 1.8, 0.8, 0.4, 3.2, 8.7, 0.7 and 0.8 times of the corresponding background values of Ningxia soil, respectively. The variations of Pb, Zn, Co, Biand Ni concentrations in the surface soil of Yinchuan were larger than those of the other metals.Our results also showed that the toxic metals investigated in the soil had different enrichment levels. Both Co and Bi were significantly enriched, whereas Cr was only moderatelyenriched in the soil. There was a deficiency or minimal enrichment of the other toxic metals in the soil. Source analysis results based on the concentration, enrichment characteristics and multivariate statistical analysis indicated that Cr, V and Ni originated from a combination of fossil fuel combustion, traffic pollution and natural occurrence.Pb, Cu and Zn were predominantly derived from natural and traffic sources, while Co and Bi primarily originated from construction sources.

Key wordstoxic metals      urban surface soil      enrichment factor      arid area      Northwest China     
Received: 31 May 2017      Published: 10 August 2018
Corresponding Authors: Xinwei LU     E-mail:
Cite this article:

Mingxin ZHANG, Xinwei LU, Dongqi SHI, Huiyun PAN. Toxic metal enrichment characteristics and sources of arid urban surface soil in Yinchuan City,China. Journal of Arid Land, 2018, 10(4): 653-662.

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