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Journal of Arid Land  2022, Vol. 14 Issue (3): 341-355    DOI: 10.1007/s40333-022-0091-z
Research article     
Variation of soil physical-chemical characteristics in salt-affected soil in the Qarhan Salt Lake, Qaidam Basin
HUI Rong(), TAN Huijuan, LI Xinrong, WANG bingyao
Shapotou Desert Research and Experiment Station, Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China
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Soil salinization has adverse effects on the soil physical-chemical characteristics. However, little is known about the changes in soil salt ion concentrations and other soil physical-chemical characteristics within the Qarhan Salt Lake and at different soil depths in the surrounding areas. Here, we selected five sampling sites (S1, S2, S3, S4, and S5) alongside the Qarhan Salt Lake and in the Xidatan segment of the Kunlun Mountains to investigate the relationship among soil salt ion concentrations, soil physical-chemical characteristics, and environmental variables in April 2019. The results indicated that most sites had strongly saline and very strongly saline conditions. The main salt ions present in the soil were Na+, K+, and Cl-. Soil nutrients and soil microbial biomass (SMB) were significantly affected by the salinity (P<0.05). Moreover, soil salt ions (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, CO32-, SO42-, and HCO3-) were positively correlated with electrical conductivity (EC) and soil water content (SWC), but negatively related to altitude and soil depth. Unlike soil salt ions, soil nutrients and SMB were positively correlated with altitude, but negatively related to EC and SWC. Moreover, soil nutrients and SMB were negatively correlated with soil salt ions. In conclusion, soil nutrients and SMB were mainly influenced by salinity, and were related to altitude, soil depth, and SWC in the areas from the Qarhan Salt Lake to the Xidatan segment. These results imply that the soil quality (mainly evaluated by soil physical-chemical characteristics) is mainly influenced by soil salt ions in the areas surrounding the Qarhan Salt Lake. Our results provide an accurate prediction of how the soil salt ions, soil nutrients, and SMB respond to the changes along a salt gradient. The underlying mechanisms controlling the soil salt ion distribution, soil nutrients, and SMB in an extremely arid desert climate playa should be studied in greater detail in the future.

Key wordssalinization      soil salt ions      soil physical-chemical characteristics      soil microbial biomass      soil nutrient      Qarhan Salt Lake     
Received: 13 April 2021      Published: 31 March 2022
Corresponding Authors: HUI Rong     E-mail:
Cite this article:

HUI Rong, TAN Huijuan, LI Xinrong, WANG bingyao. Variation of soil physical-chemical characteristics in salt-affected soil in the Qarhan Salt Lake, Qaidam Basin. Journal of Arid Land, 2022, 14(3): 341-355.

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Fig. 1 Overview of the study area and sample sites. DEM, digital elevation model.
Characteristic S1 S2 S3 S4 S5
Coordinate 36°41′02″N,
36°39′04″N, 95°03′27″E 36°31′41″N, 94°58′12″E 35°51′41″N, 94°21′06″E 35°44′19″N, 94°15′45″E
Elevation (m) 2719 2720 2750 3811 4123
Salt crust thickness (cm) 30±4 25±2 3±1 0±0 0±0
Vegetation coverage (%) 0±0 20±3 45±5 30±5 20±4
Dominant plant None Apocynum venetum and Phragmites communis Phragmites communis and Lycium ruthenicum Stipa capillata
and Salsola spp.
Androsace tapete
Table 1 General characteristics of the five sampling sites
SWC (%)
Soil depth (cm) S1 S2 S3 S4 S5
0-5 0.96±0.16d 0.81±0.05d 8.56±0.45a 2.46±0.37c 6.99±0.09b
5-10 14.22±0.78b 15.02±1.81b 20.47±2.52a 4.58±0.28c 7.10±0.67c
10-20 15.36±1.50b 16.94±0.68b 20.65±1.77a 5.73±0.42c 6.59±0.55c
20-40 20.93±1.02a 21.34±1.50a 23.62±0.82a 9.08±0.64b 3.94±0.46c
40-60 22.09±1.83a 20.33±1.84a 24.25±1.34a 9.12±0.91b 3.68±0.03c
60-80 21.63±0.60b 20.53±1.76b 28.16±0.90a 9.35±0.49c 4.18±0.12d
80-100 22.13±0.43b 20.04±0.24b 33.77±3.08a 9.86±0.22c 3.96±0.24d
Soil depth (cm) S1 S2 S3 S4 S5
0-5 8.73±0.04a 8.71±0.04ab 8.45±0.03c 8.54±0.05c 8.58±0.06bc
5-10 8.49±0.04c 8.64±0.02b 8.48±0.02c 8.23±0.02d 8.78±0.05a
10-20 8.58±0.02b 8.61±0.03ab 8.21±0.03d 8.29±0.06c 8.73±0.05a
20-40 8.36±0.02c 8.54±0.03b 8.11±0.02d 8.15±0.03d 8.73±0.05a
40-60 8.29±0.02b 8.17±0.03c 8.04±0.03d 8.31±0.06b 8.75±0.05a
60-80 8.17±0.03b 8.20±0.02b 8.03±0.05c 8.28±0.02b 8.88±0.04a
80-100 8.14±0.02bc 8.13±0.02bc 8.06±0.02c 8.24±0.06b 8.72±0.06a
EC (dS/m)
Soil depth (cm) S1 S2 S3 S4 S5
0-5 25.2±0.2a 24.3±0.1b 21.3±0.3c 6.5±0.2d 6.6±0.2d
5-10 23.5±0.3a 22.4±0.4b 18.3±0.3c 6.7±0.2d 6.3±0.1d
10-20 23.0±0.5a 23.4±0.3a 13.4±0.3b 6.3±0.2c 5.8±0.2c
20-40 21.6±0.2a 20.2±0.4b 8.7±0.2c 5.7±0.2d 4.8±0.2e
40-60 14.6±0.4a 12.0±0.3b 7.1±0.2c 4.1±0.2d 3.7±0.2d
60-80 8.7±0.3a 8.4±0.0a 7.2±0.3b 3.8±0.3c 3.4±0.2c
80-100 6.9±0.3b 7.0±0.1b 7.7±0.4a 3.7±0.2c 4.2±0.2c
Table 2 Soil water content (SWC), pH, and electrical conductivity (EC) at different soil depths in the five sampling sites
SOC (g/kg)
Soil depth (cm) S1 S2 S3 S4 S5
0-5 8.563±0.340c 8.588±0.551c 9.885±0.401c 12.258±0.594b 13.832±0.288a
5-10 8.402±0.250d 8.350±0.498d 9.543±0.160c 11.526±0.349b 12.847±0.335a
10-20 8.325±0.172b 8.293±0.109b 8.579±0.200b 9.605±0.320a 9.825±0.287a
20-40 5.766±0.228d 6.094±0.328cd 6.843±0.173c 8.564±0.161b 9.813±0.285a
40-60 5.211±0.120c 5.232±0.131c 6.002±0.133b 7.640±0.155a 7.911±0.265a
60-80 4.933±0.063c 4.807±0.482c 6.074±0.241b 6.536±0.079ab 7.226±0.196a
80-100 4.296±0.093c 4.196±0.148c 5.877±0.226b 6.168±0.092b 6.866±0.103a
TN (g/kg)
Soil depth S1 S2 S3 S4 S5
0-5 0.306±0.029c 0.309±0.025c 0.448±0.012b 0.483±0.023b 0.660±0.032a
5-10 0.303±0.013c 0.308±0.020c 0.434±0.008b 0.451±0.011b 0.535±0.012a
10-20 0.302±0.011c 0.305±0.011c 0.420±0.008b 0452±0.012b 0.511±0.010a
20-40 0.172±0.009d 0.177±0.014d 0.238±0.009c 0.369±0.017b 0.445±0.011a
40-60 0.136±0.011d 0.138±0.011d 0.174±0.011c 0.305±0.012b 0.434±0.008a
60-80 0.138±0.008d 0.137±0.010d 0.170±0.009c 0.242±0.005b 0.405±0.012a
80-100 0.102±0.007c 0.105±0.007c 0.117±0.008c 0.216±0.007b 0.375±0.013a
TP (g/kg)
Soil depth S1 S2 S3 S4 S5
0-5 0.319±0.012d 0.322±0.016d 0.373±0.016c 0.471±0.012b 0.531±0.011a
5-10 0.307±0.019c 0.306±0.007c 0.320±0.010bc 0.356±0.011ab 0.369±0.016a
10-20 0.245±0.010c 0.248±0.012c 0.293±0.012b 0.338±0.010a 0.362±0.012a
20-40 0.232±0.012c 0.229±0.014c 0.304±0.006b 0.339±0.008a 0.346±0.013a
40-60 0.211±0.008c 0.215±0.016c 0.265±0.013b 0.311±0.009a 0.314±0.009a
60-80 0.193±0.016c 0.195±0.010c 0.242±0.008b 0.264±0.014ab 0.285±0.007a
80-100 0.171±0.009d 0.170±0.009d 0.207±0.014c 0.240±0.009b 0.287±0.010a
TK (g/kg)
Soil depth S1 S2 S3 S4 S5
0-5 2.871±0.121c 2.892±0.104c 3.371±0.087b 3.682±0.171b 4.729±0.101a
5-10 2.774±0.099d 2.787±0.109d 3.161±0.050c 3.457±0.109b 4.590±0.058a
10-20 2.628±0.146c 2.626±0.157c 3.114±0.139b 3.418±0.070b 4.515±0.081a
20-40 2.586±0.105d 2.618±0.112d 3.045±0.139c 3.405±0.091b 4.495±0.069a
40-60 2.572±0.119d 2.624±0.079cd 2.946±0.163bc 3.252±0.125b 4.478±0.028a
60-80 2.555±0.031c 2.559±0.115c 2.779±0.099c 3.069±0.081b 4.447±0.093a
80-100 2.527±0.043c 2.524±0.097c 2.718±0.133bc 2.994±0.127b 4.438±0.086a
Table 3 Soil nutrient contents at different soil depths in the five sampling sites
Fig. 2 Soil salt ions concentrations at different soil depths in the five sampling sites. S1-S5 are the five sampling sites. Different lowercase letters indicate significant differences among five sampling sites at same soil depth (P<0.05). Bars mean standard deviation. (a), Na+ concentration; (b), K+ concentration; (c), Ca2+ concentration; (d), Mg2+ concentration; (e), Cl- concentration; (f), CO32- concentration; (g), SO42- concentration; (h), HCO3- concentration.
Soil salt ions concentrations at different soil depths in the five sampling sites. S1-S5 are the five sampling sites. Different lowercase letters indicate significant differences among five sampling sites at same soil depth (P<0.05). Bars mean standard deviation. (a), Na+ concentration; (b), K+ concentration; (c), Ca2+ concentration; (d), Mg2+ concentration; (e), Cl- concentration; (f), CO32- concentration; (g), SO42- concentration; (h), HCO3- concentration.
Fig. 3 Soil microbial biomass concentrations at different soil depths in the five sampling sites. S1-S5 are the five sampling sites. Different lowercase letters indicate significant differences among five sampling sites at same soil depth (P<0.05). Bars mean standard deviation. (a), microbial biomass carbon (MBC) concentration; (b), microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) concentration; (c), microbial biomass phosphorus (MBP) concentration.
Fig. 4 Redundancy analysis (RDA) of environmental variables and soil physical-chemical properties. (a), the constraint ordination of the site samples, environmental variables, and soil physical-chemical proprieties (soil salt ion concentrations, soil nutrient contents, and soil microbial biomass (SMB)); (b), the constraint ordination of the site samples, soil salt ion concentrations, and soil nutrient contents. Red arrows indicate environmental factors (a) and soil salt ions (b), and blue arrows are soil physical-chemical proprieties (a) and soil nutrient contents (b). S1-S5 are the five sampling sites. EC, electrical conductivity; MBC, microbial biomass carbon; MBN, microbial biomass nitrogen; MBP, microbial biomass phosphorus; SOC, soil organic carbon; SWC, soil water content; TK, total potassium; TN, total nitrogen; TP, total phosphorus.
Axis Environmental variables Soil physical-chemical properties
Axis 1 239.93 <0.001 149.06 <0.001
Axis 2 97.82 <0.001 4.50 0.492
Axis 3 34.37 0.004 0.93 0.970
Axis 4 0.24 1.000 0.46 0.988
Table 4 Permutation test results for the redundancy analysis (RDA) axes
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