Please wait a minute...
Journal of Arid Land  2019, Vol. 11 Issue (2): 192-207    DOI: 10.1007/s40333-019-0100-z
Orginal Article     
Abrupt temperature change and a warming hiatus from 1951 to 2014 in Inner Mongolia, China
Long MA*(), Hongyu LI, Tingxi LIU, Longteng LIANG
Water Conservancy and Civil Engineering College, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Hohhot 010018, China
Download: HTML     PDF(1368KB)
Export: BibTeX | EndNote (RIS)      


An abrupt temperature change and a warming hiatus have strongly influenced the global climate. This study focused on these changes in Inner Mongolia, China. This study used the central clustering method, Mann-Kendall mutation test and other methods to explore the abrupt temperature change and warming hiatus in three different temperature zones of the study region based on average annual data series. Among the temperature metrics investigated, average minimum temperature (Tnav) shifted the earliest, followed by average temperature (Tnv) and average maximum temperature (Txav). The latest change was observed in summer (1990s), whereas the earliest was observed in winter (1970s). Before and after the abrupt temperature change, Tnavfluctuatedconsiderably, whereas there was only a slight change in Txav. Before and after the abrupt temperature change, the winter temperature changed more dramatically than the summer temperature. Before the abrupt temperature change, Tnav in the central region (0.322°C/10a) and west region (0.48°C/10a) contributed the most to the increasing temperatures. After the abrupt temperature change, Tnav in winter in the central region (0.519°C/10a) and in autumn in the west region (0.729°C/10a) contributed the most to the temperature increases. Overall, in the years in which temperature shifts occurred early, a warming hiatus also appeared early. The three temperature metrics in spring (1991) in the east region were the first to exhibit a warming hiatus. In the east region, Txav displayed the lowest rate of increase (0.412°C/a) in the period after the abrupt temperature change and before the warming hiatus, and the highest rate of increase after the warming hiatus.

Key wordstemperature      abrupt temperature change      warming hiatus      cold and arid region      northern China     
Received: 09 February 2018      Published: 10 April 2019
Corresponding Authors: Long MA     E-mail:
Cite this article:

Long MA, Hongyu LI, Tingxi LIU, Longteng LIANG. Abrupt temperature change and a warming hiatus from 1951 to 2014 in Inner Mongolia, China. Journal of Arid Land, 2019, 11(2): 192-207.

URL:     OR

[1] AiW, LinX.1995. Climatic abrupt change in the northern hemisphere for 1920s and 1950s. Journal of Meteorological Research, 9(2): 190-198.
[2] BalmasedaM A, TrenberthK E, Källén E.2013. Distinctive climate signals in reanalysis of global ocean heat content. Geophysical Research Letters, 40(9): 1754-1759.
[3] Brulebois E, Castel T, Yves R.2015. Hydrological response to an abrupt shift in surface air temperature over France in 1987/88. Journal of Hydrology, 531: 892-901.
[4] ChenS, GuoJ, HanT, et al.2009. Climate warming of autumn air temperature in arid and semiarid regions in Northwest China over the recent 46 years. Journal of Desert Research, 29(3): 544-550. (in Chinese)
[5] Chen Y N, Deng H J, Li B F, et al.2014. Abrupt change of temperature and precipitation extremes in the arid region of Northwest China. Quaternary International, 336(26): 35-43.
[6] Cheng H.2004. Abrupt climate change: debate or action. Chinese Science Bulletin, 49(18): 1997-2002.
[7] CuiY, KumpL R.2015. Global warming and the end-Permian extinction event: proxy and modeling perspectives. Earth-Science Reviews, 149: 5-22.
[8] DelworthT L, ZengF R, Rosati A, et al.2015. A link between the hiatus in global warming and North American drought. Journal of Climate, 28(9): 3834-3845.
[9] DongB W, SuttonR T, Chen W,et al.2016. Abrupt summer warming and changes in temperature extremes over Northeast Asia since the mid-1990s:drivers and physical processes. Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, 33(9): 1005-1023.
[10] EasterlingD R, WehnerM F.2009. Is the climate warming or cooling?Geophysical Research Letters, 36(8).
[11] Guemas V, Doblas-ReyesF J, Andreu-Burillo I, et al.2013. Retrospective prediction of the global warming slowdown in the past decade. Nature Climate Change, 3(7): 649-653.
[12] HuZ Y, LiQ X, Chen X, et al.2016. Climate changes in temperature and precipitation extremes in an alpine grassland of Central Asia. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 126(3-4): 519-531.
[13] KarlT R, Arguez A, Huang B, et al.2015. Possible artifacts of data biases in the recent global surface warming hiatus. Science, 348(6242): 1469-1472.
[14] KaufmannR K, Kauppi H, MannM L, et al.2011. Reconciling anthropogenic climate change with observed temperature 1998-2008. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108(29): 11790-11793.
[15] KerrR A.2009. Both of the world's ice sheets may be shrinking faster and faster. Science, 326(5950): 217.
[16] Kosaka Y, XieS P.2013. Recent global-warming hiatus tied to equatorial Pacific surface cooling. Nature, 501(7467): 403-407.
[17] Leduc G, Vidal L, Tachikawa K, et al.2009. ITCZ rather than ENSO signature for abrupt climate changes across the tropical Pacific?Quaternary Research, 72(1): 123-131.
[18] Li C, Stevens B, Marotzke J.2015. Eurasian winter cooling in the warming hiatus of 1998-2012. Geophysical Research Letters, 42(19): 8131-8139.
[19] LiF L, JoY H, YanX H, et al.2016. Climate signals in the mid- to high-latitude North Atlantic from altimeter observations. Journal of Climate, 29(13): 4905-4925.
[20] LinC C,Wang K, SunY M.2016. Study on the change of temperature time series in medium section of agro-pastoral ecotone of Northern China during the last 60 years. Act Agrestia Sinica, 24(4): 747-753. (in Chinese)
[21] Lin J, Chen L, Yang M, et al.2013. Three abrupt climatic events since the Late Pleistocene in the North China plain. Journal of Palaeogeography, 2(4): 422-434.
[22] Liu P, SuiC H.2014. An observational analysis of the oceanic and atmospheric structure of global-scale multi-decadal variability. Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, 31(2): 316-330.
[23] Liu Y, Wei Z, Li Z, et al.2012. Study on division of precipitation in Northern China. Plateau Meteorology, 31(3): 638-645.
[24] Lv S, Li D, Wen J, et al.2010. Analysis on periodic variations and abrupt change of air temperature over Qinghai-Xizang plateau under global warming. Plateau Meteorology, 29(6): 1378-1385. (in Chinese)
[25] Ma X, Li D.2003. Analyses on air temperature and its abrupt change over Qinghai-Xizang plateau in modern age. Plateau Meteorology, 22(5): 507-512. (in Chinese)
[26] MeehlG A, Hu A, ArblasterJ M, et al.2013. Externally forced and internally generated decadal climate variability associated with the interdecadal pacific oscillation. Journal of Climate, 26(18): 7298-7310.
[27] Ning X, Dong J, Yan J.2011. The infulunce of temperatures mutations to droughts and floods in Shanbei region. Journal of Arid Land Resources and Environment, 25(12): 102-106. (in Chinese)
[28] RenG Y, ChuZ Y, ZhouY Q, et al.2005. Recent progresses in studies of regional temperature changes in China. Climatic and Environmental Research, 10(4): 701-716.(in Chinese)
[29] Solomon S, RosenlofK H, PortmannR W, et al.2010. Contributions of stratospheric water vapor to decadal changes in the rate of global warming. Science, 327(5970): 1219-1223.
[30] Solomon S, DanielJ S, NeelyR R, et al.2011. The persistently variable "background" stratospheric aerosol layer and global climate change. Science, 333(6044): 866-870.
[31] Sun Y, Guo P, Yan X, et al.2010. Dynamics of vegetation cover and its relationship with climate change and human activities in Inner Mongolia. Journal of Natural Resources, 25(3): 407-414.(in Chinese)
[32] Svensmark H, Bondo T, Svensmark J.2009. Cosmic ray decreases affect atmospheric aerosols and clouds. Geophysical Research Letters, 36(15): doi: 10.1029/2009GL038429.
[33] ThompsonD W J, WallaceJ M.1998. The Arctic oscillation signature in the wintertime geopotential height and temperature fields. Geophysical Research Letters, 25(9): 1297-1300.
[34] Tian H, Niu Z.2016. The seasonal air temperature evolution in Inner Mongolia during 1953-2013. Journal of Arid Land Resources and Environment, 30(1): 638-645. (in Chinese)
[35] TrenberthK E, FasulloJ T, Branstator G, et al.2014. Seasonal aspects of the recent pause in surface warming. Nature Climate Change, 4(10): 911-916.
[36] Wang H, Zhang B, Zhao C, et al.2009. The spatio-temporal characteristics of temperature change in recent 57 years in Northern China. Progress in Geography, 28(4): 643-650.
[37] Xiao Y, Ouyang Z, Wang L, et al.2016. Spatial patterns of ecosystem quality in Inner Mongolia and its driving forces analysis. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 36(19): 6019-6030.(in Chinese)
[38] Zarenistanak M, Dhorde A G, Kripalani R H.2014. Trend analysis and change point detection of annual and seasonal precipitation and temperature series over southwest Iran. Journal of Earth System Science, 123(2): 281-295.
[39] Zeng B, YanC X, Yu L, et al.2016. Analysis of winter temperature in South China during 1960-2009. Plateau and Mountain Meteorology Research, 36(2): 46-52. (in Chinese)
[40] Zhou J, Liang Z, Liu Y, et al.2015. Six-decade temporal change and seasonal decomposition of climate variables in Lake Dianchi watershed (China): stable trend or abrupt shift?Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 119(1-2): 181-191.
[1] CHEN Li, XU Changchun, LI Xiaofei. Projections of temperature extremes based on preferred CMIP5 models: a case study in the Kaidu-Kongqi River basin in Northwest China[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2021, 13(6): 568-580.
[2] Arvind BHATT, David J GALLACHER, Paulo R M SOUZA-FILHO. Germination strategies of annual and short-lived perennial species in the Arabian Desert[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2020, 12(6): 1071-1082.
[3] ZHENG Jing, FAN Junliang, ZOU Yufeng, Henry Wai CHAU, ZHANG Fucang. Ridge-furrow plastic mulching with a suitable planting density enhances rainwater productivity, grain yield and economic benefit of rainfed maize[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2020, 12(2): 181-198.
[4] HUA Ding, HAO Xingming, ZHANG Ying, QIN Jingxiu. Uncertainty assessment of potential evapotranspiration in arid areas, as estimated by the Penman-Monteith method[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2020, 12(1): 166-180.
[5] XU Lili, YU Guangming, ZHANG Wenjie, TU Zhenfa, TAN Wenxia. Change features of time-series climate variables from 1962 to 2016 in Inner Mongolia, China[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2020, 12(1): 58-72.
[6] Zhijun LI, Xiao ZHANG, Yaqiong ZHENG, Aijun QIU, Ling ZHANG. Effects of temperature on flowering phenological traits of Populus euphratica Oliv. and Populus pruinosa Schrenk populations, Xinjiang, China[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2019, 11(5): 754-763.
[7] Yinge LIU, Ninglian WANG, Junhui ZHANG, Lingang WANG. Climate change and its impacts on mountain glaciers during 1960-2017 in western China[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2019, 11(4): 537-550.
[8] Jun ZHANG, Peng DONG, Haoyu ZHANG, Chaoran MENG, Xinjiang ZHANG, Jianwei HOU, Changzhou WEI. Low soil temperature reducing the yield of drip irrigated rice in arid area by influencing anther development and pollination[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2019, 11(3): 419-430.
[9] Xue YANG, Junpeng LI, Tingting ZHAO, Lidong MO, Jianli ZHANG, Huiqin REN, Nianxi ZHAO, Yubao GAO. Variation and heritability of morphological and physiological traits among Leymus chinensis genotypes under different environmental conditions[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2019, 11(1): 66-74.
[10] Guohua HE, Yong ZHAO, Jianhua WANG, Qingming WANG, Yongnan ZHU. Impact of large-scale vegetation restoration project on summer land surface temperature on the Loess Plateau, China[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2018, 10(6): 892-904.
[11] Xiaobo GU, Yuannong LI, Yadan DU. Film-mulched continuous ridge-furrow planting improves soil temperature, nutrient content and enzymatic activity in a winter oilseed rape field, Northwest China[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2018, 10(3): 362-374.
[12] Linli CUI, Jun SHI, Yue MA, Xiaochen LIU. Variations of the thermal growing season during the period 1961-2015 in northern China[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2018, 10(2): 264-276.
[13] M FAKHFAKH Lobna, A ANJUM Naser, CHAIEB Mohamed. Effects of temperature and water limitation on the germination of Stipagrostis ciliata seeds collected from Sidi Bouzid Governorate in Central Tunisia[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2018, 10(2): 304-315.
[14] Hui TIAN, IQBAL Mudassar. Utilizing a new soil effective temperature scheme and archived satellite microwave brightness temperature data to estimate surface soil moisture in the Nagqu region, Tibetan Plateau of China[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2018, 10(1): 84-100.
[15] Rui WANG, Qingke ZHU, Hao MA, Ning AI. Spatial-temporal variations in near-surface soil freeze-thaw cycles in the source region of the Yellow River during the period 2002-2011 based on the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) data[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2017, 9(6): 850-864.