Please wait a minute...
Journal of Arid Land  2020, Vol. 12 Issue (3): 495-507    DOI: 10.1007/s40333-020-0012-y
Research article     
Evaluation of the efficiency of irrigation methods on the growth and survival of tree seedlings in an arid climate
Zahra JAFARI1,*(), SayedHamid MATINKHAH1, Mohammad R MOSADDEGHI2, Mostafa TARKESH1
1 Department of Natural Resources, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 8415683111, Iran
2 Department of Soil Science, Department of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 8415683111, Iran
Download: HTML     PDF(529KB)
Export: BibTeX | EndNote (RIS)      


Scarce and scattered precipitation in arid regions is detrimental for newly planted seedlings. It is essential to provide required water storage for seedlings in restoration projects in the first year of their establishment. The subsurface irrigation can be much more effective than the surface irrigation because of the regulation of water availability and reduction in water evaporation. We studied the effect of surface and subsurface irrigation methods on the growth and survival of four common tree species including heaven tree (Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle), China berry (Melia azedarach L.), white mulberry (Morus alba L.), and black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) by installing underground clay reservoirs with different permeabilities in Isfahan City, Iran. Different amounts of animal manure and wheat straw were mixed with clay fraction and cooked in a pottery kiln at 900°C to produce reservoirs with different permeabilities. The experimental treatments consisting of irrigation and tree species were considered with a factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design with three replications in 2016 and 2017. Leaf water potential of seedlings, which is indirectly related to drought resistance, was measured by a portable pressure chamber. The results showed that saplings height, basal diameter, number of leaves, chlorophyll content and stomatal conductance were significantly (P<0.05) higher in the subsurface irrigation with low permeability than in the surface irrigation, but the number of branches of the studied species were not significantly (P>0.05) affected by the irrigation methods and different permeabilities of clay reservoirs. The clay reservoirs with low and medium permeabilities constantly provide better conditions for plant growth, and water with lower pressure and longer time intervals to the plant roots as compared with the reservoirs with high permeability. Analysis of variance of the data showed that year and interaction between year and permeability of reservoir had significant effects (P<0.05) on all growth parameters, except for the chlorophyll content. In addition, the highest percentage of survival was 100% associated with the subsurface irrigation and the control treatment had the lowest survival percentages of 60%, 70%, 80% and 100% for M. alba, M. azedarach, A. altissima and R. pseudoacacia, respectively. Finally, the values of leaf water potential showed that R. pseudoacacia was the most drought resistant species.

Key wordssubsurface irrigation      clay reservoirs      permeability      restoration      arid area     
Received: 07 June 2019      Published: 10 May 2020
Corresponding Authors: JAFARI Zahra     E-mail:
About author: *Corresponding author: Zahra JAFARI (E-mail:
Cite this article:

Zahra JAFARI, SayedHamid MATINKHAH, Mohammad R MOSADDEGHI, Mostafa TARKESH. Evaluation of the efficiency of irrigation methods on the growth and survival of tree seedlings in an arid climate. Journal of Arid Land, 2020, 12(3): 495-507.

URL:     OR

Fig. 1 Clay reservoirs used in this study (a) and view of the project implementation (b)
Reservoir dimension Parameter
1.00 Thickness (cm)
50.00 Height (cm)
10.00 Inner diameter (cm)
11.00 Outer diameter (cm)
1916.97 Area (cm2)
4749.25 Volume (cm3)
Table 1 Geometric properties of the clay reservoirs used in this study
SAR Mg2++Ca2+
CO3- (mmol/L) pH EC
1.44 2.40 1.57 13.00 6.00 2.00 8.04 0.29
Table 2 Chemical properties of the irrigation water
(m3/100 m3)
(kg/100 kg)
(kg/100 kg)
(kg/100 kg)
Clay (kg/100 kg) Sand (kg/100 kg) EC
pH Depth
51.00 1.36 8.40 13.50 29.50 21.80 48.70 2.00 8.81 0-50
Table 3 Soil physical and chemical properties
Permeability Percentage of water depletion after 24 h (%) Materials used for preparation Clay reservoir type
Low 0.22 95% clay+5% manure R1
0.24 95% clay+5% wheat straw R2
Medium 0.30 100% clay soil R3
High 0.48 60% clay+40% manure R4
0.50 60% clay+40% wheat straw R5
Table 4 Water depletion percentage of the clay reservoirs with different permeabilities after 24 h
Fig. 2 Water depletion percentage of the clay reservoirs with different permeabilities with time. The clay reservoir types of R1-R5 are explained in Table 4.
Species Source of variation df Mean square
Height Basal diameter Number of branches Number of leaves Chlorophyll content Stomatal conductance
A. altissima Permeability 3 1070.83* 26.06* 0.15ns 135.15* 69.59* 906.80*
Replication (Permeability) 8 191.66ns 7.86* 0.12ns 2.25ns 11.66ns 9.09ns
Year 1 4537.50* 270.68* 22.04* 1365.04* 44.17ns 181.50*
Permeability×Year 3 2181.94* 104.17* 0.70ns 3.15* 199.69ns 5.91*
Error 8 133.33 2.13 0.29 4.50 14.10 20.54
R2 - 0.93 0.97 0.91 0.98 0.86 0.94
CV - 10.78 5.91 21.96 7.63 17.00 15.11
M. azadirachta Permeability 3 1310.50* 123.56* 0.37ns 11,929.15* 661.19* 2512.60*
Replication (Permeability) 8 41.79ns 3.42ns 0.37ns 318.70* 33.75ns 54.56ns
Year 1 7848.16* 1757.53* 3.37* 1998.37* 287.38ns 490.51*
Permeability×Year 3 1097.16* 111.94* 1.04ns 84.37* 788.71ns 25.73*
Error 8 24.29 1.80 0.37 33.12 67.48 47.57
R2 - 0.98 0.99 0.77 0.99 0.90 0.95
CV - 3.56 4.47 18.14 2.77 20.60 16.77
M. alba Permeability 3 1393.04* 41.08* 11.93ns 21,643.15* 244.58* 1041.38*
Replication (Permeability) 8 62.91ns 3.23ns 1.08ns 770.75* 60.57ns 10.78ns
Year 1 187.04* 244.60* 12.04* 2147.04* 565.60ns 1.38*
Permeability×Year 3 278.04* 32.52* 0.37ns 16.15* 226.85ns 28.21*
Error 8 47.91 1.19 0.41 113.50 66.58 5.64
R2 - 0.93 0.98 0.94 0.98 0.82 0.98
CV - 5.80 4.89 4.38 3.91 46.68 7.85
R. pseudoacacia Permeability 3 2861.77* 184.93* 25.37ns 2761.48* 81.90* 983.84*
Replication (Permeability) 8 334.00ns 33.54ns 6.66ns 63.83ns 11.76ns 26.53ns
Year 1 3174.00* 96.12* 18.37* 1426.04* 0.46ns 1323.13*
Permeability×Year 3 1251.77* 253.37* 2.37ns 90.26* 29.94ns 28.23*
Error 8 332.33 1.58 4.00 118.33 13.51 13.06
R2 - 0.87 0.97 0.82 0.91 0.79 0.97
CV - 15.10 6.50 24.87 23.71 30.95 11.32
Table 5 Analysis of variance of the growth indicators of plant species under different treatments
Year Species Growth indicator Reservoir's permeability treatment
Low Medium High Control
2016 A. altissima Height (cm) 115.0±0.01a 105.3±5.77a 90.7±15.27b 80.3±25.10b
Basal diameter (cm) 24.5±1.5a 22.9±0.8a 20. 6±3.9a 15.0±3.6b
No. of branches 2±0.5a 2±0.9a 2±1.0a 2±1.0a
No. of leaves 26±1.5a 24±3.2a 19±3.1b 16±5.1c
Relative chlorophyll content 27.69±5.1a 25.39±3.8a 20.44±7.1b 17.40±2.1c
Stomatal conductance (mmol/(m2?s)) 40.86±3.3a 37.47±1.5a 29.36±5.9b 23.26±4.6c
M. azedarach Height (cm) 143.3±0.10a 133.3±2.80a 110.0±5.80b 103.3±5.70b
Basal diameter (cm) 23.5±0.2a 22.7±2.5a 19.6±0.2a 19.4±0.1a
No. of branches 3±2.0a 3±1.2a 3±3.0a 3±1.0a
No. of leaves 234±1.0a 218±1.5a 195±4.9b 168±6.2c
Chlorophyll content 60.15±5.0a 57.67±3.9a 45.95±7.2b 40.82±2.0c
Stomatal conductance (mmol/(m2?s)) 60.96±3.0a 55.90±6.9a 47.46±1.8b 39.93±1.9c
M. alba Height (cm) 130.0±0.01a 123.6±6.01a 110.0±8.00b 101.6±2.88b
Basal diameter 23.0±2.0a 20.6±1.2a 20.0±1.3a 17.3±0.2b
No. of branches 14±3.0a 14±3.0a 13±3.0a 13±3.0a
No. of leaves 232±7.8a 328±3.0a 288±10.0b 250±9.0c
Relative chlorophyll content 39.47±7.3a 36.10±3.0a 27.16±2.1b 25.13±2.3b
Stomatal conductance (mmol/(m2?s)) 44.70±2.5a 42.20±1.4a 36.60±2.7b 30.50±2.1c
R. pseudoacacia Height (cm) 130.0±5.70a 126.5±3.00a 113.3±0.50b 96.6±5.80c
Basal diameter (cm) 19.4±0.4a 19.3±2.0a 18.3±0.8a 14.3±0.0b
No. of branches 6±3.0a 6±3.0a 6±3.0a 6±3.0a
No. of leaves 59±3.0a 50±1.0a 40±3.1b 32±2.0c
Relative chlorophyll content 18.19±2.5a 17.77±1.4a 12.95±7.6b 12.02±5.7a
Stomatal conductance (mmol/(m2?s)) 28.60±3.5a 28.60±2.0a 21.23±3.6b 21.00±1.3b
2017 A. altissima Height (cm) 146.6±5.77a 137.3±5.01a 113.3±3.01b 90.0±5.10c
Basal diameter (cm) 35.1±2.2a 30.1±2.9a 26.64±1.1a 17.6±3.1b
No. of branches 5±3.0a 5±3.0a 5±3.0a 5±3.0a
No. of leaves 40±1.2a 37±1.0a 31±3.6b 29±1.5b
Chlorophyll content 29.20±0.0a 27.31±3.1a 22.19±1.6b 19.26±1.0c
Stomatal conductance (mmol/(m2?s)) 41.26±6.0a 37.46±4.5a 30.86±6.0b 23.36±10.0c
M. azedarach Height (cm) 175.6±4.10a 168.3±3.77a 147.3±5.13b 133.3±2.09b
Basal diameter (cm) 31.0±1.5a 29.6±2.0a 26.8±0.3a 20.6±4.0b
No. of branches 8±3.0a 8±3.0a 8±3.0a 8±3.0a
No. of leaves 360±7.0a 341±7.5a 314±3.1b 280±4.5c
Relative chlorophyll content 62.00±2.0a 57.75±3.3a 47.16±6.0b 40.31±1.2b
Stomatal conductance (mmol/(m2?s)) 60.70±3.8a 58.00±3.2a 49.13±5.0b 40.73±2.3c
M. alba Height (cm) 158.6±1.76a 145.0±7.00a 128.0±3.21b 115.3±3.16c
Basal diameter (cm) 26.6±3.0a 23.1±3.0a 23.0±2.0a 20.7±0.0b
No. of branches 27±3.0a 27±2.0a 26±3.0a 26±2.5a
No. of leaves 500±9.1a 470±6.9a 391±5.7b 360±6.1c
Relative chlorophyll content 48.47±1.8a 46.1±7.5a 38.16±3.7b 32.13±1.3b
Stomatal conductance (mmol/(m2?s)) 46.80±1.6a 42.23±1.01a 30.86±4.6b 29.60±4.0b
R. pseudoacacia Height (cm) 146.6±8.01a 139.6±5.77a 123.6±3.01b 106.6±3.20c
Basal diameter (cm) 27.5±2.0a 26.1±2.0a 25.6±1.0a 18.0±3.1b
No. of branches 14±0.0a 14±3.0a 15±3.0a 16±3.0a
No. of leaves 83±1.3a 79±2.1a 69±3.0b 60±6.0c
Relative chlorophyll content 17.57±2.5a 16.81±0.0a 12.55±1.3b 11.12±5.4c
Stomatal conductance (mmol/(m2?s)) 34.46±5.8a 32.30±0.0a 24.46±4.5b 22.00±3.7b
Table 6 Means' comparisons of growth indictors of plant species under different treatments
Surface irrigation (%) Subsurface irrigation (%) Species
80 100 A. altissima
70 100 M. azedarach
60 100 M. alba
100 100 R. pseudoacacia
Table 7 Survival percentage of the tree saplings as affected by the irrigation systems
Species Treatment Mean±SE (bar) Mean square F P
R. pseudoacacia Before irrigation -31.33±7.20 652.68 24.57 0.01
After irrigation -16.58±1.11
A. altissima Before irrigation -42.00±10.55 1788.52 30.69 0.01
After irrigation -17.58±2.24
M. azedarach Before irrigation -45.25±10.60 1575.52 19.81 0.01
After irrigation -22.33±6.83
M. alba Before irrigation -50.00±6.48 588.00 7.33 0.02
After irrigation -36.00±0.88
Table 8 Analysis of variance of leaf water potential of the tree saplings as affected by the irrigation systems
[1]   Abubaker B M A, Yu S E, Shao G S, et al.2014. Effect of irrigation levels on the growth, yield and quality of potato. Journal of Agricultural Science, 20(2): 303-309.
[2]   Amoud A I.2010. Subsurface drip irrigation for date palm trees to conserve water. Acta Horticulturae, 882: 103-114.
[3]   Ansari H, Naderainfar M, Ramazani H, et al.2014. Comparison and evaluation of some of growth indices of the dominant species of urban green spaces in the jar subsurface, drip and surface irrigation systems. Iranian Journal of Irrigation and Drainage, 2: 402-412.
[4]   Ashrafi S, Gupta A D, Babel M S, et al.2002. Simulation of infiltration from porous clay pipe in subsurface irrigation. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 47: 253-268.
doi: 10.1080/02626660209492928
[5]   Ayars J, Phene C, Hutmacher R, et al.1999. Subsurface drip irrigation of row crops: a review of 15 years of research at the water management research laboratory. Agricultural Water Management, 42(1): 1-27.
doi: 10.1016/S0378-3774(99)00025-6
[6]   Azizi S. Tabari Kochaksarai al.2015. Responding of the survival and growth of the Populus euphratica Oliv. to the waterlogging-salinity stresses. Desert Ecosystem Engineering Journal, 4: 9-20.
[7]   Bainbridge D A.2001. Buried clay pot irrigation: a little known but very efficient traditional method of irrigation. Agricultural Water Management, 48(2): 79-88.
doi: 10.1016/S0378-3774(00)00119-0
[8]   Bhatt N, Kanzariya B, Motiani A, et al.2013. An experimental investigation on pitcher irrigation technique on alkaline soil with saline irrigation water. International Journal of Engineering Science and Innovative Technology (IJESIT), 6(2):206-211.
[9]   Bouyoucos G J.1962. Hydrometer method improved for making particle size analyses of soils. Agronomy Journal, 54: 464-465.
doi: 10.2134/agronj1962.00021962005400050028x
[10]   Camilli K.2006. Chinaberry: a threat to Texas forests-eleventh of the "dirty dozen". In: Texas Forestry, Newsletter of the Texas Forestry Association, 13-14.
[11]   Camp C.1998. Subsurface drip irrigation: a review. Transactions of the ASAE, 41: 1353.
doi: 10.13031/2013.17309
[12]   Chang S X, Robison D J.2003. Nondestructive and rapid estimation of hardwood foliar nitrogen status using the SPAD-502 chlorophyll meter. Forest Ecology Management, 181(3): 331-338.
doi: 10.1016/S0378-1127(03)00004-5
[13]   Cutler D F.1978. Survey and identification of tree roots. Journal of Arboricultural, 3: 243-246.
doi: 10.1080/03071375.1978.10590523
[14]   Elhindi E, El-Hendawy S, Abdel-Salam E, et al.2016. Impacts of fertigation via surface and subsurface drip irrigation on growth rate, yield and flower quality of Zinnia elegans. Bragantia, 75(1), 96-107.
doi: 10.1590/1678-4499.176
[15]   El-Shikha D M. 2008. Optimum plant-pan coefficient for surface and subsurface drip irrigated potato grown under Egyptian weather conditions. In: American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers 2008 Providence, Rhode Island, June 29-July 2.
[16]   Ekren S, Sönmez Ç, Özçakal E, et al.2012. The effect of different irrigation water levels on yield and quality characteristics of purple basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Agricultural Water Management, 109: 155-161.
doi: 10.1016/j.agwat.2012.03.004
[17]   Fitter A H, Hay R K M. 1987. Environmental Physiology of Plants (2nd ed). New York: Academic Press, 423.
[18]   Gemborys S R, Hodgkins Earl J.1971. Forests of small stream bottoms in the coastal plain of southwestern Alabama. Journal of Ecology, 52: 70-84.
[19]   Grossman R B, Reinsch T G.2002. Bulk density and linear extensibility. In: Dick W A. Methods of Soil Analysis: Physical Methods. Madison: Soil Science Society of America, 201-228.
[20]   Gunston H, Ali M H.2012. Practices of Irrigation and On-Farm Water Management-Volume 2. Heidelberg: Springer, 155.
[21]   Heitzman P G.1977. "Subsurface infiltration system" for tree irrigation. In: Roadway Development Division, Washington State Department of Transportation, Washington, USA.
[22]   Hoshovsky M C.1988. Element Stewardship Abstract for Ailanthus altissima. Arlington: The Nature Conservancy, 11-88.
[23]   Hu H, Zhang G, Zheng K.2014. Modeling leaf image, chlorophyll fluorescence, reflectance from SPAD readings. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, 7(11): 4368-4373.
doi: 10.1109/JSTARS.2014.2325812
[24]   Hu S Y.1979. Ailanthus altissima. Arnoldia, 39: 29-50.
[25]   Huang X, Liu Y, Li J, et al.2013. The response of mulberry trees after seedling hardening to summer drought in the hydro-fluctuation belt of Three Gorges Reservoir areas. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 20: 7103-7111.
doi: 10.1007/s11356-012-1395-x
[26]   Islam T, Sarker H, Alam J.1990. Water use and yield relationships of irrigated potato. Agricultural Water Management, 18(2): 173-179.
doi: 10.1016/0378-3774(90)90029-X
[27]   Kirkham M B.2014. Principles of Soil and Plant Water Relations (2nd ed.). Pittsburgh: Academic Press, 598.
[28]   Klute A.1986. Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 1. Physical and Mineralogical Properties (2nd ed). Madison: American Society of Agronomy and Soil Science Society of America, 1188.
[29]   Levidow L, Zaccaria D, Maia R, et al.2014. Improving water-efficient irrigation: Prospects and difficulties of innovative practices. Agricultural Water Management, 146: 84-94.
doi: 10.1016/j.agwat2014.07.012
[30]   Lloret F, Penuelas J, Ogaya R.2004. Establishment of co-existing Mediterranean tree species under a varying soil moisture regime. Journal of Vegetation Science, 15(2): 237-244.
doi: 10.1111/jvs.2004.15.issue-2
[31]   Moghbeli Moheni Dorodi A, Delbari M, Koohi N.2014. Investigation of vegetative and reproductive traits of Rosa damascena in different drip and surface irrigation regimes. Iranian Journal of Water and Soil Research, 46(4): 673-683. (in Arabic)
[32]   Minucci J M, Miniat C F, Teskey R O, et al.2017. Tolerance or avoidance: drought frequency determines the response of an N2-fixing tree. New Phytologist, 215(1): 434-442.
doi: 10.1111/nph.14558
[33]   Naik B, Panda R, Nayak S, et al.2008. Hydraulics and salinity profile of pitcher irrigation in saline water condition. Agricultural Water Management, 95(10): 1129-1134.
doi: 10.1016/j.agwat.2008.04.010
[34]   Nielsen D C, Nelson N O.1998. Black bean sensitivity to water stress at various growth stages. Crop Science, 38(2): 422-427.
doi: 10.2135/cropsci1998.0011183X003800020025x
[35]   Pagola M, Ortiz R, Irigoyen I, et al.2009. New method to assess barley nitrogen nutrition status based on image colour analysis: Comparison with SPAD-502. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 65(2): 213-218.
doi: 10.1016/j.compag.2008.10.003
[36]   Pask A J D, Pietragalla J, Mullan D al.2012. Physiological Breeding II: A Field Guide to Wheat Phenotyping. Mexico: Cimmyt, 132.
[37]   Phene C J, Davis K R, Hutmacher R B, et al.1987. Advantages of subsurface irrigation for processing tomatoes. Acta Horticulturae, 200: 101-114.
[38]   Postel S L.2000. Entering an era of water scarcity: the challenges ahead. Ecological Applications, 10(4): 941-948.
doi: 10.1890/1051-0761(2000)010[0941:EAEOWS]2.0.CO;2
[39]   Raij B V.1966. Determination of calcium and magnesium by EDTA in extracts from soils. Bragantia, 25: 317-326.
doi: 10.1590/S0006-87051966000200004
[40]   Rao K V R, Gangwar S, Aherwar P, et al.2019. Growth, yield, economics and water use efficiency of onion (Allium cepa L.) under different micro irrigation systems. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 8(3): 3866-3869.
[41]   Sanches A C, Gomes E P, Azevedo E P G.2017. Canola yield under different irrigation frequencies and nitrogen levels in the Brazilian Cerrado. Ciência e Agrotecnologia, 41(4): 367-377.
doi: 10.1590/1413-70542017414003317
[42]   Savé R, Castell C, Terradas J.1999. Gas exchange and water relations. In: Rodà F, Retana J, Gracia C A, et al. Ecology of Mediterranean Evergreen Oak Forests. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 135-147.
[43]   Sims D A, Gamon J A.2002. Relationships between leaf pigment content and spectral reflectance across a wide range of species, leaf structures and developmental stages. Remote Sensing of Environment, 81(2-3): 337-354.
doi: 10.1016/S0034-4257(02)00010-X
[44]   Slavich P, Petterson G.1993. Estimating the electrical conductivity of saturated paste extracts from 1:5 soil, water suspensions and texture. Soil Research, 31(1): 73-81.
doi: 10.1071/SR9930073
[45]   Tallant B, Pelkki M.2004. A comparison of four forest inventory tools in southeast Arkansas. In: Proceedings of the Southern Forest Economics Workshop, 23-34.
[46]   Thompson T L, Doerge T A.1996. Nitrogen and water interactions in subsurface trickle-irrigated leaf lettuce II. Agronomic, economic, and environmental outcomes. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 60(1): 168-173.
doi: 10.2136/sssaj1996.03615995006000010027x
[47]   Vines Robert A.1960. Trees, Shrubs, and Woody Vines of the Southwest. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1104.
[48]   Warren L W, Derral R Herbst, Sohmer S H.1999. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i. Revised Edition: Volume 1. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 988.
[49]   Water U N.2007. Coping with water scarcity: challenge of the twenty-first century. In: World Water Day, United Nations, Rome, Italy, 1-29.
[50]   Zaccaria D, Carrillo-Cobo M T, Montazar A, et al.2017. Assessing the viability of sub-surface drip irrigation for resource-efficient alfalfa production in Central and Southern California. Water, 9: 837.
doi: 10.3390/w9110837
[51]   Zhang J.1996. Interactive effects of soil nutrients, moisture and sand burial on the development, physiology, biomass and fitness of Cakile edentula. Annals of Botany, 78(5): 591-598.
doi: 10.1006/anbo.1996.0165
[52]   Zhang J, Niu W, Zhang L L, et al.2012. Experimental study on characters of wetted soil in moist-tube irrigation. Science of Soil and Water Conservation, 10: 32-38.
[1] HUANG Laiming, ZHAO Wen, SHAO Ming'an. Response of plant physiological parameters to soil water availability during prolonged drought is affected by soil texture[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2021, 13(7): 688-698.
[2] Benjamin DAVIDSON, Elli GRONER. An arthropod community beyond the dry limit of plant life[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2021, 13(6): 629-638.
[3] ZHOU Siyuan, DUAN Yufeng, ZHANG Yuxiu, GUO Jinjin. Vegetation dynamics of coal mining city in an arid desert region of Northwest China from 2000 to 2019[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2021, 13(5): 534-547.
[4] Abdulrahim M AL-ISMAILI, Moustafa A FADEL, Hemantha JAYASURIYA, L H Janitha JEEWANTHA, Adel AL-MAHDOURI, Talal AL-SHUKEILI. Potential reduction in water consumption of greenhouse evaporative coolers in arid areas via earth-tube heat exchangers[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2021, 13(4): 388-396.
[5] ZHANG Yongkun, HUANG Mingbin. Spatial variability and temporal stability of actual evapotranspiration on a hillslope of the Chinese Loess Plateau[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2021, 13(2): 189-204.
[6] Masoud BAZGIR, Reza OMIDIPOUR, Mehdi HEYDARI, Nasim ZAINALI, Masoud HAMIDI, Daniel C DEY. Prioritizing woody species for the rehabilitation of arid lands in western Iran based on soil properties and carbon sequestration[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2020, 12(4): 640-652.
[7] Nadia KAMALI, Hamid SIROOSI, Ahmad SADEGHIPOUR. Impacts of wind erosion and seasonal changes on soil carbon dioxide emission in southwestern Iran[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2020, 12(4): 690-700.
[8] LIU Weichao, FU Shuyue, YAN Shengji, REN Chengjie, WU Shaojun, DENG Jian, LI Boyong, HAN Xinhui, YANG Gaihe. Responses of plant community to the linkages in plant-soil C:N:P stoichiometry during secondary succession of abandoned farmlands, China[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2020, 12(2): 215-226.
[9] XU Lili, YU Guangming, ZHANG Wenjie, TU Zhenfa, TAN Wenxia. Change features of time-series climate variables from 1962 to 2016 in Inner Mongolia, China[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2020, 12(1): 58-72.
[10] Jun ZHANG, Peng DONG, Haoyu ZHANG, Chaoran MENG, Xinjiang ZHANG, Jianwei HOU, Changzhou WEI. Low soil temperature reducing the yield of drip irrigated rice in arid area by influencing anther development and pollination[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2019, 11(3): 419-430.
[11] Rentao LIU, STEINBERGER Yosef, Jingwei HOU, Juan ZHAO, Jianan LIU, Haitao CHANG, Jing ZHANG, Yaxi LUO. Conversion of cropland into agroforestry land versus naturally-restored grassland alters soil macro-faunal diversity and trophic structure in the semi-arid agro-pasture zone of northern China[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2019, 11(2): 306-317.
[12] Pingping XUE, Xuelai ZHAO, Yubao GAO, Xingdong HE. Phenotypic plasticity of Artemisia ordosica seedlings in response to different levels of calcium carbonate in soil[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2019, 11(1): 58-65.
[13] Guohua HE, Yong ZHAO, Jianhua WANG, Qingming WANG, Yongnan ZHU. Impact of large-scale vegetation restoration project on summer land surface temperature on the Loess Plateau, China[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2018, 10(6): 892-904.
[14] Tong HENG, Renkuan LIAO, Zhenhua WANG, Wenyong WU, Wenhao LI, Jinzhu ZHANG. Effects of combined drip irrigation and sub-surface pipe drainage on water and salt transport of saline-alkali soil in Xinjiang, China[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2018, 10(6): 932-945.
[15] Mingxin ZHANG, Xinwei LU, Dongqi SHI, Huiyun PAN. Toxic metal enrichment characteristics and sources of arid urban surface soil in Yinchuan City,China[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2018, 10(4): 653-662.