Please wait a minute...
Journal of Arid Land  2015, Vol. 7 Issue (6): 831-840    DOI: 10.1007/s40333-015-0013-4
Brief Communication     
Canopy interception loss in a Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica forest of Northeast China
LI Yi1, CAI Tijiu1,2*, MAN Xiuling2, SHENG Houcai2, JU Cunyong2
1 Center for Ecological Research, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China;
2 College of Forestry, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China
Download:   PDF(313KB)
Export: BibTeX | EndNote (RIS)      

Abstract  Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica is one of the main species to be afforested in deserts of China. But little work has been carried out on the canopy interception loss of this plant species. For researching the canopy in-terception loss of a natural P. sylvestris forest, we observed the gross precipitation, gross snowfall, throughfall and stemflow in a sample plot at the Forest Ecosystem Research Station of Mohe in the Great Khingan Mountains of Northeast China from July 2012 to September 2013. Considering the spatial variability of the throughfall, we increased the area rather than the number of collector and randomly relocated them once a week. The results demonstrated that the throughfall, stemflow, and derived estimates of rainfall and snowfall interception loss during the main rainy and snowy seasons were 77.12%±5.70%, 0.80%, 22.08%±5.51% and 21.39%±1.21% of the incident rainfall or snowfall, respectively. The stemflow didn’t occur unless the accu-mulated rainfall reached up to 4.8 mm. And when the gross precipitation became rich enough, the stemflow increased with increasing tree diameters. Our analysis revealed that throughfall was not observed when rainfall was no more than 0.99 mm, indicating that the canopy storage capacity at saturation was 0.99 mm for P. sylvestris forest.

Key wordsarid environment      lake change      source of water recharge      climate change     
Received: 02 December 2014      Published: 10 December 2015

The National Natural Science Foundation of China (31370460)

Corresponding Authors:
Cite this article:

LI Yi, CAI Tijiu, MAN Xiuling, SHENG Houcai, JU Cunyong. Canopy interception loss in a Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica forest of Northeast China. Journal of Arid Land, 2015, 7(6): 831-840.

URL:     OR

Aboal J R, Morales D, Hernández M, et al. 1999. The measurement and modelling of the variation of stemflow in a laurel forest in Tenerife, Canary Islands. Journal of Hydrology, 221(3–4): 161–175.

Calder I R, Rosier P T W. 1976. The design of large plastic-sheet net-rainfall gauges. Journal of Hydrology, 30(4): 403–405.

Calder I R. 1996. Dependence of rainfall interception on drop size: 1. Development of the two-layer stochastic model. Journal of Hydrology, 185(1–4): 363–378.

Carlyle-Moses D E, Price A G. 1999. An evaluation of the Gash interception model in a northern hardwood stand. Journal of Hydrology, 214(1–4): 103–110.

Chen S J, Chen C G, Zou B C, et al. 2012. Time lag effects and rainfall redistribution traits of the canopy of natural secondary Pinus tabulaeformis on precipitation in the Qinling Mountains, China. Acta Ecological Sinica, 32(4): 1142–1150. (in Chinese)

Gash J H C. 1979. An analytical model of rainfall interception by forests. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 105(443): 43–45.

Gerrits A M J, Savenije H H G. 2011. Interception. In: Peter W. Treatise on Water Science, 2. Oxford: Academic Press, 89–101.

Gong H D, Wang K Y, Yang W Q, et al. 2005. Throughfall and stemflow in a primary spruce forest in the subalpine of western Sichuan. Scientia Silvae Sinicae, 41(1): 198–201. (in Chinese)

Helvey J D, Patric J H. 1965. Canopy and litter interception of rainfall by hardwoods of eastern United States. Water Re-sources Research, 1(2): 193–206.

Herbst M, Rosier P T W, McNeil D D, et al. 2008. Seasonal varia-bility of interception evaporation from the canopy of a mixed deciduous forest. Agriculture and Forest Meteorology, 148(11): 1655–1667.

Herwitz S R. 1987. Raindrop impact and water flow on the vege-tative surfaces of trees and the effects on stemflow and throughfall generation. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 12(4): 425–432.

Holwerda F, Scatena F N, Bruijnzeel L A. 2006. Throughfall in a Puerto Rican lower montane rain forest: a comparison of sam-pling strategies. Journal of Hydrology, 327(3–4): 592–602.

Hörmann G, Branding A, Clemen T, et al. 1996. Calculation and simulation of wind controlled canopy interception of a beech forest in Northern Germany. Agriculture and Forest Meteorol-ogy, 79(3): 131–148.

Huang J, Hu H B, Zhang J Y, et al. 2009. Canopy interception characteristics of bamboo forests in northern semitropics. Journal of Nanjing Forestry University: Natural Science Edition, 33(2): 31–34. (in Chinese)

Keim R F, Skaugset A. 2003. Modelling effects of forest canopies on slope stability. Hydrological Processes, 17(7): 1457–1467.

Lanly J. 1982. Tropical forest resources. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) paper no. 30. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. [2014-09-10].

Lawrence G B, Fernandez I J. 1993. A reassessment of areal var-iability of throughfall deposition measurements. Ecological Applications, 3(3): 473–480.

Levia D F, Jr, Frost E E. 2003. A review and evaluation of stemflow literature in the hydrologic and biogeochemical cy-cles of forested and agricultural ecosystems. Journal of Hy-drology, 274(1–4): 1–29.

Levia D F, Carlyle-Moses D, Tanaka T. 2011. Forest Hydrology and Biogeochemistry. New York: Springer Science+Business Media, 407–425.

Liu H L, Cai T J, Man X L, et al. 2012. Effects of major forest types of Xiaoxing’an Mountains on the process of snowfall, snow cover and snow melting. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 34(2): 20–25. (in Chinese)

Lloyd C R, De O Marques-Filho A. 1988. Spatial variability of throughfall and stemflow measurements in Amazonian rain-forest. Agriculture and Forest Meteorology, 42(1): 63–73.

Manfroi O J, Koichiro K, Nobuaki T, et al. 2004. The stemflow of trees in a Bornean lowland tropical forest. Hydrological Pro-cesses, 18(13): 2455–2474.

Martinez-Meza E, Whitford W G. 1996. Stemflow, throughfall and channelization of stemflow by roots in three Chihuahuan desert shrubs. Journal of Arid Environments, 32(3): 271–287.

Mitchell D J, Fullen M A, Trueman I C, et al. 1998. Sustainability of reclaimed desertified land in Ningxia, China. Journal of Arid Environments, 39(2): 239–251.

National Meteorological Information Center of the People’s Re-public of China. 2012. Grade of Precipitation. Beijing: China Zhijian Publishing House, 1–8. (in Chinese)

Neary A J, Gizyn W I. 1994. Throughfall and stemflow chemistry under deciduous and coniferous forest canopies in south-central Ontario. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 24(6): 1089–1100.

Rodrigo A, Àvila A. 2001. Influence of sampling size in the esti-mation of mean throughfall in two Mediterranean holm oak forests. Journal of Hydrology, 243(3–4): 216–227.

Roth B E, Slatton K C, Cohen M J. 2007. On the potential for high-resolution lidar to improve rainfall interception estimates in forest ecosystems. Frontiers in Ecology and Environment, 5(8): 421–428.

Rutter A J, Morton A J, Robins P C. 1975. A predictive model of rainfall interception in forests. II. Generalization of the model and comparison with observations in some coniferous and hardwood stands. Journal of Applied Ecology, 12(1): 367–380.

Sheng H C, Cai T J, Zhu D G, et al. 2009. Rainfall redistribution and hydrochemical characteristics in the Larch plantation. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 23(2): 79–83. (in Chinese)

Sheng H C, Cai T J, Li Y, et al. 2014. Rainfall redistribution in Larix gmelinii forest on northern of Daxing’an Mountains, 

Northeast of China. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 28(6): 101–105. (in Chinese)

Sheng X J, Wang S G, Guan D X, et al. 2010. Canopy interception in larch plantations: Measurement and modeling in Eastern Liao-ning Mountainous Region. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology, 21(12): 3021–3028. (in Chinese)

State Forestry Administration of the People’s Republic of China. 2011. Observation Methodology for Long-term Forest Eco-system Research. Beijing: Phoenix Press. [2014-11-8]. (in Chinese)

Tsiko C T, Makurira H, Gerrits A M J, et al. 2012. Measuring forest floor and canopy interception in a savannah ecosystem. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, 47–48: 122–127.

Whelan M J, Anderson J M. 1996. Modelling spatial patterns of throughfall and interception loss in a Norway spruce (Picea abies) plantation at the plot scale. Journal of Hydrology, 186(1–4): 335–354.

Xie F J, Xiao D N, Li X Z. 2007. Forest crown density restoration and influencing factors in the burned area of northern Great Hing’an Mountains of China. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 27(3): 879−888. (in Chinese)

Shachnovich Y, Berliner P R, Bar P. 2008. Rainfall interception and spatial distribution of throughfall in a pine forest planted in an arid zone. Journal of Hydrology, 349(1–2): 168−177.

Zhou M. 2003. Research on the hydrological process and laws of Larix gmelini ecosystem at the Greater Xing’an Mountains. PhD Dissertation. Beijing: Beijing Forestry University. (in Chinese)
[1] ZHAO Xuqin, LUO Min, MENG Fanhao, SA Chula, BAO Shanhu, BAO Yuhai. Spatiotemporal changes of gross primary productivity and its response to drought in the Mongolian Plateau under climate change[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2024, 16(1): 46-70.
[2] Mitiku A WORKU, Gudina L FEYISA, Kassahun T BEKETIE, Emmanuel GARBOLINO. Projecting future precipitation change across the semi-arid Borana lowland, southern Ethiopia[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2023, 15(9): 1023-1036.
[3] QIN Guoqiang, WU Bin, DONG Xinguang, DU Mingliang, WANG Bo. Evolution of groundwater recharge-discharge balance in the Turpan Basin of China during 1959-2021[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2023, 15(9): 1037-1051.
[4] MA Jinpeng, PANG Danbo, HE Wenqiang, ZHANG Yaqi, WU Mengyao, LI Xuebin, CHEN Lin. Response of soil respiration to short-term changes in precipitation and nitrogen addition in a desert steppe[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2023, 15(9): 1084-1106.
[5] ZHANG Hui, Giri R KATTEL, WANG Guojie, CHUAI Xiaowei, ZHANG Yuyang, MIAO Lijuan. Enhanced soil moisture improves vegetation growth in an arid grassland of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2023, 15(7): 871-885.
[6] ZHANG Zhen, XU Yangyang, LIU Shiyin, DING Jing, ZHAO Jinbiao. Seasonal variations in glacier velocity in the High Mountain Asia region during 2015-2020[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2023, 15(6): 637-648.
[7] GAO Xiang, WEN Ruiyang, Kevin LO, LI Jie, YAN An. Heterogeneity and non-linearity of ecosystem responses to climate change in the Qilian Mountains National Park, China[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2023, 15(5): 508-522.
[8] Reza DEIHIMFARD, Sajjad RAHIMI-MOGHADDAM, Farshid JAVANSHIR, Alireza PAZOKI. Quantifying major sources of uncertainty in projecting the impact of climate change on wheat grain yield in dryland environments[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2023, 15(5): 545-561.
[9] Sakine KOOHI, Hadi RAMEZANI ETEDALI. Future meteorological drought conditions in southwestern Iran based on the NEX-GDDP climate dataset[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2023, 15(4): 377-392.
[10] Mehri SHAMS GHAHFAROKHI, Sogol MORADIAN. Investigating the causes of Lake Urmia shrinkage: climate change or anthropogenic factors?[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2023, 15(4): 424-438.
[11] ZHANG Yixin, LI Peng, XU Guoce, MIN Zhiqiang, LI Qingshun, LI Zhanbin, WANG Bin, CHEN Yiting. Temporal and spatial variation characteristics of extreme precipitation on the Loess Plateau of China facing the precipitation process[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2023, 15(4): 439-459.
[12] Adnan ABBAS, Asher S BHATTI, Safi ULLAH, Waheed ULLAH, Muhammad WASEEM, ZHAO Chengyi, DOU Xin, Gohar ALI. Projection of precipitation extremes over South Asia from CMIP6 GCMs[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2023, 15(3): 274-296.
[13] ZHAO Lili, LI Lusheng, LI Yanbin, ZHONG Huayu, ZHANG Fang, ZHU Junzhen, DING Yibo. Monitoring vegetation drought in the nine major river basins of China based on a new developed Vegetation Drought Condition Index[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2023, 15(12): 1421-1438.
[14] CAO Yijie, MA Yonggang, BAO Anming, CHANG Cun, LIU Tie. Evaluation of the water conservation function in the Ili River Delta of Central Asia based on the InVEST model[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2023, 15(12): 1455-1473.
[15] YAN Xue, LI Lanhai. Spatiotemporal characteristics and influencing factors of ecosystem services in Central Asia[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2023, 15(1): 1-19.