Please wait a minute...
Journal of Arid Land  2019, Vol. 11 Issue (5): 637-651    DOI: 10.1007/s40333-019-0061-2
Orginal Article     
Monitoring the impact of climate change andhuman activities on grassland vegetation dynamics in the northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateauof China during 2000-2015
Qinli XIONG1, Yang XIAO2,*(), Waseem A HALMY Marwa3, A DAKHIL Mohammed1,4,5, Pinghan LIANG6, Chenggang LIU7, Lin ZHANG1, PANDEY Bikram1,4, Kaiwen PAN1, B EL KAFRAWAY Sameh8, Jun CHEN4
1CAS Key Laboratory of Mountain Ecological Restoration and Bioresource Utilization & Ecological Restoration Biodiversity Conservation Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, China
2College of Biology and Environmental Sciences, Jishou University, Jishou 416000, China
3Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Alexandria 21511, Egypt
4University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039, China
5Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Cairo 11790, Egypt
6School of Government, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
7CAS Key Laboratory of Tropical Plant Resources and Sustainable Use, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Menglun 666303, China
8National Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Sciences, Cairo 11790, Egypt
Download: HTML     PDF(1276KB)
Export: BibTeX | EndNote (RIS)      


Climate change and human activities can influence vegetation net primary productivity (NPP), a key component of natural ecosystems. The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of China, in spite of its significant natural and cultural values, is one of the most susceptible regions to climate change and human disturbancesin the world. To assess the impact of climate change and human activities on vegetation dynamics in the grassland ecosystems ofthe northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, we applied a time-series trend analysis to normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) datasets from 2000 to 2015 and compared these spatiotemporal variations with trends in climatic variables over the same time period. The constrained ordination approach (redundancy analysis) was used to determine which climatic variables or human-related factors mostly in?uenced the variation of NDVI. Furthermore, in order to determine whether current conservation measures and programs are effectivein ecological protection and reconstruction, we divided the northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau into two parts: the Three-River Headwater conservation area (TRH zone) in the south and the non-conservation area (NTRH zone) in the north. The results indicatedan overall (73.32%)increasing trend of vegetation NPP in grasslands throughout the study area. During the period 2000-2015, NDVI in the TRH and NTRH zones increased at the rates of 0.0015/aand 0.0020/a, respectively.Specifically, precipitation accounted for 9.2% of the total variation in NDVI, while temperature accounted for 13.4%. In addition, variation in vegetation NPP of grasslands responded not only to long- and short-term changes in climate, as conceptualized in non-equilibrium theory, but also to the impact of human activities and their associated perturbations. The redundancy analysis successfully separated the relative contributions of climate change and human activities, of whichvillage populationand agricultural gross domestic product were the two most important contributors to the NDVI changes, explaining 17.8% and 17.1% of the total variationof NDVI (with the total contribution >30.0%), respectively. The total contributionpercentages of climate change and human activitiesto the NDVI variation were27.5% and 34.9%, respectively, inthe northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Finally, our study shows that the grassland restoration in the study area was enhanced by protection measures and programs in the TRH zone, which explained 7.6% of the total variation in NDVI.

Key wordsclimate change      human activities      NDVI variation      Qinghai-Tibet Plateau      redundancy analysis      vegetation net primary productivity     
Received: 02 August 2018      Published: 10 October 2019
Corresponding Authors:
About author:

The first and second authors contributed equally to this work.

Cite this article:

Qinli XIONG, Yang XIAO, Waseem A HALMY Marwa, A DAKHIL Mohammed, Pinghan LIANG, Chenggang LIU, Lin ZHANG, PANDEY Bikram, Kaiwen PAN, B EL KAFRAWAY Sameh, Jun CHEN. Monitoring the impact of climate change andhuman activities on grassland vegetation dynamics in the northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateauof China during 2000-2015. Journal of Arid Land, 2019, 11(5): 637-651.

URL:     OR

[1] Angert A, Biraud S, Bonfils C, et al.2005. Drier summers cancel out the CO2 uptake enhancement induced by warmer springs.PNAS, 102(31): 10823-10827.
[2] Bai Z G, Dent D L, Olsson L, et al.2008. Proxy global assessment of land degradation. Soil Use and Management, 24(3): 223-234.
[3] Bao G,Bao Y,Sanjjava A, et al.2015.NDVI-indicated long-term vegetation dynamics in Mongolia and their response to climate change at biome scale.International Journal of Climatology, 35(14): 4293-4306.
[4] Beck H E, Mcvicar T R, van Dijk A I J M, et al.2011. Global evaluation of four AVHRR-NDVI data sets: Intercomparison and assessment against Landsat imagery. Remote Sensing of Environment, 115(10): 2547-2563.
[5] Bégué A, Vintrou E, Ruelland D, et al.2011. Can a 25-year trend in Soudano-Sahelian vegetation dynamics be interpreted in terms of land use change? A remote sensing approach. Global Environmental Change, 21(2): 413-420.
[6] Cai H, Yang X, Xu X.2015. Human-induced grassland degradation/restoration in the central Tibetan Plateau: The effects of ecological protection and restoration projects.Ecological Engineering, 83:112-119.
[7] Che M L, Chen B Z, Innes J L, et al.2014. Spatial and temporal variations in the end date of the vegetation growing season throughout the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau from 1982 to 2011.Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 189-190(189): 81-90.
[8] Chen H, Zhu Q, Peng C H, et al.2013. The impacts of climate change and human activities on biogeochemical cycles on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Global Change Biology, 19(10): 2940-2955.
[9] Ciais P, Sabine C, Bala G, et al.2013. Carbon and other biogeochemical cycles. In: Stocker T F, Qin D, Plattner G K, et al. Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 465-570.
[10] Cleland E E, Chuine I, Menzel A, et al.2007. Shifting plant phenology in response to global change. Trends in Ecology &Evolution, 22(7): 357-365.
[11] Cong N, Wang T, Nan H J, et al.2013. Changes in satellite-derived spring vegetation green-up date and its linkage to climate in China from 1982 to 2010: a multimethod analysis. Global Change Biology, 19(3): 881-891.
[12] Dakhil M A, Xiong Q L, Farahatc E A, et al.2019. Past and future climatic indicators for distribution patterns and conservation planning of temperate coniferous forests in southwestern China. Ecological Indicators, 107: 105559, doi: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2019.105559.
[13] Defries R, Field C B, Fung I, et al.1999. Combining satellite data and biogeochemical models to estimate global effects of human-induced land cover change on carbon emissions and primary productivity. Global Biogeochemical Cycles,13(3): 803-815.
[14] Del Grosso S J, Parton W J, Derner J D, et al.2018. Simple models to predict grassland ecosystem C exchange and actual evapotranspiration using NDVI and environmental variables. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 249: 1-10.
[15] Ding M J, Zhang Y L, Liu L S, et al.2007. The relationship between NDVI and precipitation on the Tibetan Plateau. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 17(3): 259-268.
[16] Du M Y, Kawashima S, Yonemura S, et al.2004. Mutual influence between human activities and climate change in the Tibetan Plateau during recent years.Global and Planetary Change, 41(3-4): 241-249.
[17] Eklundh L, Olsson L.2003. Vegetation index trends for the African Sahel 1982-1999. Geophysical Research Letters, 30(8): 122-137.
[18] Evans J, Geerken R.2004. Discrimination between climate and human-induced dryland degradation. Journal of Arid Environments, 57(4): 535-554.
[19] Feng X M, Fu B J, Lu N, et al.2013. How ecological restoration alters ecosystem services: an analysis of carbon sequestration in China's Loess Plateau. Scientific Reports, 3: 2846, doi: 10.1038/srep02846.
[20] Field C B, Randerson J T, Malmström C M.1995. Global net primary production: combining ecology and remote sensing. Remote Sensing of Environment, 51(1): 74-88.
[21] Fu G, Shen Z X, Sun W, et al.2015. A meta-analysis of the effects of experimental warming on plant physiology and growth on the Tibetan Plateau. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, 34(1): 57-65.
[22] Gao Q Z, Zhu W Q, Schwartz M W, et al.2016. Climatic change controls productivity variation in global grasslands. Scientific Reports, 6(1): 26958, doi: 10.1038/srep26958.
[23] Gao X, Huete A R, Ni W G, et al.2000. Optical-biophysical relationships of vegetation spectra without background contamination. Remote Sensing of Environment, 74(3): 609-620.
[24] Geerken R, Ilaiwi M.2004. Assessment of rangeland degradation and development of a strategy for rehabilitation. Remote Sensing of Environment, 90(4): 490-504.
[25] González Loyarte M, Menenti M.2008. Impact of rainfall anomalies on Fourier parameters of NDVI time series of northwestern Argentina.International Journal of Remote Sensing, 29(4): 1125-1152.
[26] Harris R B.2010. Rangeland degradation on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau: a review of the evidence of its magnitude and causes. Journal of Arid Environments,74(1): 1-12.
[27] Hua T, Wang X M, Ci Z, et al.2015. Responses of vegetation activity to climate variation on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (China) from 1982 to 2011. Climate Research, 66(1): 65-73.
[28] Jiang C, Zhang L B.2016. Ecosystem change assessment in the Three-river headwater region, China: patterns, causes, and implications. Ecological Engineering, 93(8): 24-36.
[29] Jobbágy E G, Sala O E, Paruelo JM.2002. Patterns and controls of primary production in the Patagonian Steppe: a remote sensing approach. Ecology,83(2): 307-319.
[30] Justice CO, Townshend J R G, Holben B N, et al.1985. Analysis of the phenology of global vegetation using meteorological satellite data. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 6(8): 1271-1318.
[31] Kang L, Han X G, Zhang Z B, et al.2007. Grassland ecosystems in China: review of current knowledge and research advancement. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 362(1482): 997-1008.
[32] Kaufmann R D, D'Arrigo R D, Laskowski C, et al.2004. The effect of growing season and summer greenness on northern forests.Geophysical Research Letters, 31(9): 111-142.
[33] Krishnaswamy J, John R, Joseph S.2014. Consistent response of vegetation dynamics to recent climate change in tropical mountain regions. Global Change Biology, 20(1): 203-215.
[34] Leps J, Šmilauer P.2003. Multivariate Analysis of Ecological Data Using CANOCO. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1-269.
[35] Liu S H, Yan D H, Shi X L, et al.2013. Grassland NDVI response to climate factors in different vegetation regionalizations in China. In: Bian F, Xie Y, Cui X, et al. Geo-Informatics in Resource Management and Sustainable Ecosystem. Communications in Computer and Information Science. Berlin: Spinger Press, 399: 370-380.
[36] Lu H Y,Zhang J P, Liu K B, et al.2009. Earliest domestication of common millet (Panicum miliaceum) in East Asia extended to 10,000 years ago.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106(18): 7367-7372.
[37] MelilloJ M, McGuire A D, Kicklighter D W, et al.1993. Global climate change and terrestrial net primary production. Nature, 363(6426): 234-240.
[38] Millennium Ecosystem Assessment.2005. Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Wetlands and Water Synthesis. Washington D C: World Resources Institute Press, 5.
[39] Mu S J, Zhou S X, Chen Y Z, et al.2013. Assessing the impact of restoration-induced land conversion and management alternatives on net primary productivity in Inner Mongolian grassland, China. Global and Planetary Change, 108: 29-41.
[40] MyneniR B, Maggion S, Iaquinta J,et al.1995. Optical remote sensing of vegetation: modeling, caveats, and algorithms. Remote Sensing of Environment, 51(1): 169-188.
[41] MyneniR B, Keeling C D, Tucker C J, et al.1997. Increased plant growth in the northern high latitudes from 1981 to 1991. Nature, 386(6626):698-702.
[42] NanZ B.2005. The grassland farming system and sustainable agricultural development in China. Grassland Science, 51(1): 15-19.
[43] NemaniRR, Keeling CD, Hashimoto H, et al.2003. Climate-driven increases in global terrestrial net primary production from 1982 to 1999. Science, 300(5625):1560-1563.
[44] NiJ.2002. Carbon storage in grasslands of China. Journal of Arid Environments,50(2): 205-218.
[45] Niu K C, Choler P, Zhao B B, et al.2009. The allometry of reproductive biomass in response to land use in Tibetan alpine grasslands. FunctionalEcology,23(2): 274-283.
[46] O'MaraF P.2012. The role of grasslands in food security and climate change. Annals of Botany, 110(6):1263-1270.
[47] Parmesan C.2006. Ecological and evolutionary responses to recent climate change. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution,and Systematics,37: 637-669.
[48] ParueloJ M, Epstein HE, Lauenroth W K, et al.1997.ANPP estimates from NDVI for the central grassland region of the United States. Ecology, 78(3): 953-958.
[49] PaudelK P,Andersen P.2010. Assessing rangeland degradation using multi temporal satellite images and grazing pressure surface model in Upper Mustang, Trans Himalaya, Nepal. Remote Sensing of Environment, 114(8): 1845-1855.
[50] PettorelliN, Vik J O, Mysterud A, et al.2005. Using the satellite-derived NDVI to assess ecological responses to environmental change. Trends in Ecology &Evolution,20(9): 503-510.
[51] Piao S L, Fang J Y, Guo Q H.2001. Application of CASA model to the estimation of Chinese terrestrial net primary productivity. Acta Phytoecologica Sinica, 25(5): 603-608. (in Chinese)
[52] Piao S L, Fang J Y, Zhou L M, et al.2005. Changes in vegetation net primary productivity from 1982 to 1999 in China. Global Biogeochemical Cycle,19(2),doi: 10.1029/2004GB002274.
[53] PiaoS L,Mohammat A, Fang J Y.2006. NDVI-based increase in growth of temperate grasslands and its responses to climate changes in China. Global Environmental Change, 16(4):340-348.
[54] PiaoS L, Cui M D, Chen A P, et al.2011a. Altitude and temperature dependence of change in the spring vegetation green-up date from 1982 to 2006 in the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau. Agricultural and ForestMeteorology, 151(12):1599-1608.
[55] Piao S L,Wang X H, Ciais P, et al.2011b. Changes in satellite-derived vegetation growth trend in temperate and boreal Eurasia from 1982 to 2006. Global Change Biology, 17(10): 3228-3239.
[56] Potter CS, Randerson J T, Field C B, et al.1993. Terrestrial ecosystem production: a process model based on global satellite and surface data. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 7(4): 811-841.
[57] Potter C S,Boriah S, Steinbach M, et al.2008.Terrestrial vegetation dynamics and global climate controls. ClimateDynamics, 31(1): 67-78.
[58] Prince S D, Tucker C J.1986. Satellite remote sensing of rangelands in Botswana II. NOAA AVHRR and herbaceous vegetation. International Journal of Remote Sensing,7(11):1555-1570.
[59] Qin Y,Yi S, Ren S, et al.2014. Responses of typical grasslands in a semi-arid basin on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau to climate change and disturbances. EnvironmentalEarth Sciences, 71(3):1421-1431.
[60] Rouse J W J, Haas R H, Schell J A, et al. 1973. Monitoring vegetation systems in the Great Plains with ERTS. In: Third ERTS Symposium. Washington DC: NASA Special Publication Press, 351: 309-317.
[61] Shen M G, Tang Y H, Chen J, et al.2011. Influences of temperature and precipitation before the growing season on spring phenology in grasslands of the central and eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Agricultural and ForestMeteorology, 151(12):1711-1722.
[62] Shen X J, Liu B H, Zhou D W.2016. Using GIMMS NDVI time series to estimate the impacts of grassland vegetation cover on surface air temperatures in the temperate grassland region of China. Remote Sensing Letter, 7(3):229-238.
[63] Song Y, Jin L, Wang H B.2018. Vegetation changes along the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau engineering corridor since 2000 induced by climate change and human activities. Remote Sensing, 10(1): 95, doi: 10.3390/rs10010095.
[64] SPSS Inc.2008. SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 17.0. Chicago:SPSS Inc.
[65] Stöckli R, Vidale P L.2004.European plant phenology and climate as seen in a 20-year AVHRR land-surface parameter dataset. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 25(17): 3303-3330.
[66] Ter Braak C J F, Šmilauer P.2002. CANOCO reference manual and CanoDraw for Windows user's guide: software for canonical community ordination (version 4.5). Ithaca NY: Mathematical and Statistical Methods - BiometrisPRI Biometris.
[67] Ter Braak C J F, Šmilauer P.2015. Topics in constrained and unconstrained ordination. Plant Ecology, 216(5): 683-696.
[68] Tucker C J, Slayback D A, Pinzon J E, et al.2001. Higher northern latitude normalized difference vegetation index and growing season trends from 1982 to 1999. International Journal of Biometeorology, 45(4): 184-190.
[69] Tucker C J, Pinzon J E, Brown ME, et al.2005. An extended AVHRR 8-km NDVI dataset compatible with and SPOT vegetation NDVI data. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 26(20): 4485-4498.
[70] van den Wollenberg A L.1977. Redundancy analysisan alternative for canonical correlation analysis. Psychometrika, 42(2): 207-219.
[71] Wang S P, Duan J C, Xu G B, et al.2012. Effects of warming and grazing on soil N availability, species composition, and ANPP in an alpine meadow. Ecology, 93(11):2365-2376.
[72] Wessels K J, Prince S D, Malherbe J, et al.2007. Can human-induced land degradation bedistinguished from the effects of rainfall variability? A case study in South Africa. Journal of Arid Environments, 68(2): 271-297.
[73] Wildi O.2007. Data Analysis in Vegetation Ecology. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell Press, 1-211.
[74] Xiao Y, Ouyang ZY.2019. Spatial-temporal patterns and driving forces of water retention service in China. Chinese Geographical Science, 29(1): 100-111.
[75] Xiao Y, Xiong Q L, Pan K W, 2019. What is left for our next generation? Integrating ecosystem services into regional policy planning in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area of China. Sustainability, 11(1): 3, doi: 10.3390/su11010003.
[76] Xiong Q L, Pan K W, Zhang L, et al.2016. Warming and nitrogen deposition are interactive in shaping surface soil microbial communities near the alpine timberline zone on the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, southwestern China. Applied Soil Ecology, 101: 72-83.
[77] Xiong Q L, Xiao Y, Ouyang Z Y, et al.2017. Bright side? The impacts of Three Gorges Reservoir on local ecological service of soil conservation in southwestern China. Environmental Earth Sciences, 76: 323, doi: 10.1007/s12665-017-6588-7.
[78] Xue X, Guo J, Han B S, et al.2009. The effect of climate warming and permafrost thaw on desertification in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Geomorphology, 108(3-4): 182-190.
[79] Zelikova T J, Blumenthal D M, Williams D G, et al.2014. Long-term exposure to elevated CO2 enhances plant community stability by suppressing dominant plant species in a mixed-grass prairie. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 111(43): 15456-15461.
[80] Zemmrich A, Manthey M, Zerbe S, et al.2010. Driving environmental factors and the role of grazing in grassland communities: a comparative study along an altitudinal gradient in Western Mongolia. Journal of Arid Environments, 74(10): 1271-1280.
[81] Zhang X P, Cheng X M.2009. Energy consumption, carbon emissions, and economic growth in China. Ecological Economics,68(10): 2706-2712.
[82] ZhongL, Ma Y M, Salama MS, et al.2010.Assessment of vegetation dynamics and their response to variations in precipitation and temperature in the Tibetan Plateau. Climatic Change, 103(3-4):519-535.
[83] ZhouH K, Zhao X Q, Tang Y H, et al.2005. Alpine grassland degradation and its control in the source region of the Yangtze and Yellow Rivers, China. Grassland Science, 51(3): 191-203.
[84] Zhou L,Tucker C J, Kaufmann R K, et al.2001. Variations in northern vegetation activity inferred from satellite data of vegetation index during 1981 to 1999. Journal of Geophysical Research:Atmospheres, 106(D17): 20069-20083.
[85] ZhouS, Huang Y F, Yu B F, et al.2015. Effects of human activities on the eco-environment in the middle Heihe River Basin based on an extended environmental Kuznets curve model. EcologicalEngineering, 76: 14-26.
[86] Zhu W Q, Pan Y Z, He H, et al.2006. Simulation of maximum light use efficiency for some typical vegetation types in China. Chinese Science Bulletin, 51(4): 457-463.
[1] ZHAO Xuqin, LUO Min, MENG Fanhao, SA Chula, BAO Shanhu, BAO Yuhai. Spatiotemporal changes of gross primary productivity and its response to drought in the Mongolian Plateau under climate change[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2024, 16(1): 46-70.
[2] Mitiku A WORKU, Gudina L FEYISA, Kassahun T BEKETIE, Emmanuel GARBOLINO. Projecting future precipitation change across the semi-arid Borana lowland, southern Ethiopia[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2023, 15(9): 1023-1036.
[3] QIN Guoqiang, WU Bin, DONG Xinguang, DU Mingliang, WANG Bo. Evolution of groundwater recharge-discharge balance in the Turpan Basin of China during 1959-2021[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2023, 15(9): 1037-1051.
[4] MA Jinpeng, PANG Danbo, HE Wenqiang, ZHANG Yaqi, WU Mengyao, LI Xuebin, CHEN Lin. Response of soil respiration to short-term changes in precipitation and nitrogen addition in a desert steppe[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2023, 15(9): 1084-1106.
[5] ZHANG Hui, Giri R KATTEL, WANG Guojie, CHUAI Xiaowei, ZHANG Yuyang, MIAO Lijuan. Enhanced soil moisture improves vegetation growth in an arid grassland of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2023, 15(7): 871-885.
[6] ZHANG Zhen, XU Yangyang, LIU Shiyin, DING Jing, ZHAO Jinbiao. Seasonal variations in glacier velocity in the High Mountain Asia region during 2015-2020[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2023, 15(6): 637-648.
[7] GAO Xiang, WEN Ruiyang, Kevin LO, LI Jie, YAN An. Heterogeneity and non-linearity of ecosystem responses to climate change in the Qilian Mountains National Park, China[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2023, 15(5): 508-522.
[8] Reza DEIHIMFARD, Sajjad RAHIMI-MOGHADDAM, Farshid JAVANSHIR, Alireza PAZOKI. Quantifying major sources of uncertainty in projecting the impact of climate change on wheat grain yield in dryland environments[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2023, 15(5): 545-561.
[9] Sakine KOOHI, Hadi RAMEZANI ETEDALI. Future meteorological drought conditions in southwestern Iran based on the NEX-GDDP climate dataset[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2023, 15(4): 377-392.
[10] Mehri SHAMS GHAHFAROKHI, Sogol MORADIAN. Investigating the causes of Lake Urmia shrinkage: climate change or anthropogenic factors?[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2023, 15(4): 424-438.
[11] ZHANG Yixin, LI Peng, XU Guoce, MIN Zhiqiang, LI Qingshun, LI Zhanbin, WANG Bin, CHEN Yiting. Temporal and spatial variation characteristics of extreme precipitation on the Loess Plateau of China facing the precipitation process[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2023, 15(4): 439-459.
[12] WU Jingyan, LUO Jungang, ZHANG Han, YU Mengjie. Driving forces behind the spatiotemporal heterogeneity of land-use and land-cover change: A case study of the Weihe River Basin, China[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2023, 15(3): 253-273.
[13] Adnan ABBAS, Asher S BHATTI, Safi ULLAH, Waheed ULLAH, Muhammad WASEEM, ZHAO Chengyi, DOU Xin, Gohar ALI. Projection of precipitation extremes over South Asia from CMIP6 GCMs[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2023, 15(3): 274-296.
[14] ZHANG Wensheng, AN Chengbang, LI Yuecong, ZHANG Yong, LU Chao, LIU Luyu, ZHANG Yanzhen, ZHENG Liyuan, LI Bing, FU Yang, DING Guoqiang. Modern pollen assemblages and their relationships with vegetation and climate on the northern slopes of the Tianshan Mountains, Xinjiang, China[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2023, 15(3): 327-343.
[15] ZHAO Lili, LI Lusheng, LI Yanbin, ZHONG Huayu, ZHANG Fang, ZHU Junzhen, DING Yibo. Monitoring vegetation drought in the nine major river basins of China based on a new developed Vegetation Drought Condition Index[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2023, 15(12): 1421-1438.