Please wait a minute...
Journal of Arid Land  2020, Vol. 12 Issue (3): 357-373    DOI: 10.1007/s40333-020-0061-2
Research article     
Glacier variations and their response to climate change in an arid inland river basin of Northwest China
ZHOU Zuhao1, HAN Ning1,2,*(), LIU Jiajia1, YAN Ziqi1, XU Chongyu3, CAI Jingya1, SHANG Yizi1, ZHU Jiasong4
1 State Key Laboratory of Simulation and Regulation of Water Cycle in River Basin, China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing 100038, China
2 Beijing Branch, North China Municipal Engineering Design and Research Institute Co. Ltd., Beijing 100081, China
3 Department of Geosciences, University of Oslo, Oslo 0316, Norway
4 School of Civil Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518000, China
Download: HTML     PDF(1389KB)
Export: BibTeX | EndNote (RIS)      


Glaciers are a critical freshwater resource of river recharge in arid areas around the world. In recent decades, glaciers have shown evidence of retreat due to climate change, and the accelerated ablation of glaciers and associated impacts on water resources have received widespread attention. Glacier variations result from climate change, so they can serve as an indicator of climate change. Considering the climatic differences in different elevation ranges, it is worthwhile to explore whether different responses exist between glacier area and air temperature in each elevation zone. In this study, we selected a typical arid inland river basin (Sugan Lake Basin) in the western Qilian Mountains of Northwest China to analyze the glacier variations and their response to climate change. The glacier area data from 1989 to 2016 were delineated using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), Enhanced TM+ (ETM+) and Operational Land Imager (OLI) images. We compared the relationships between glacier area and air temperature at seven meteorological stations in the glacier-covered areas and in the Sugan Lake Basin, and further analyzed the relationship between glacier area and mean air temperature of the glacier surfaces in July-August in the elevation range of 4700-5500 m a.s.l. by the linear regression method and correlation analysis. In addition, based on the linear regression relationship established between glacier area and air temperature in each elevation zone, we predicted glacier areas under future climate scenarios during the periods of 2046-2065 and 2081-2100. The results indicate that the glaciers experienced a remarkable shrinkage from 1989 to 2016 with a shrinkage rate of -1.61 km2/a (-0.5%/a), and the rising temperature is the decisive factor dominating glacial retreat; there is a significant negative linear correlation between glacier area and mean air temperature of the glacier surfaces in July-August in each elevation zone from 1989 to 2016. The variations in glaciers are far less sensitive to changes in precipitation than to changes in air temperature. Due to the influence of climate and topographic conditions, the distribution of glacier area and the rate of glacier ablation first increased and then decreased in different elevation zones. The trend in glacier shrinkage will continue because air temperature will continue to increase in the future, and the result of glacier retreat in each elevation zone will be slightly slower than that in the entire study area. Quantitative glacier research can more accurately reflect the response of glacier variations to climate change, and the regression relationship can be used to predict the areas of glaciers under future climate scenarios. These conclusions can offer effective references for assessing glacier variations and their response to climate change in arid inland river basins in Northwest China as well as other similar regions in the world.

Key wordsglacier variations      climate change      glacier area      remote sensing      regression relationship      elevation zone      Qilian Mountains     
Received: 26 January 2019      Published: 10 May 2020
Corresponding Authors:
About author: *Corresponding author: HAN Ning (E-mail:
Cite this article:

ZHOU Zuhao, HAN Ning, LIU Jiajia, YAN Ziqi, XU Chongyu, CAI Jingya, SHANG Yizi, ZHU Jiasong. Glacier variations and their response to climate change in an arid inland river basin of Northwest China. Journal of Arid Land, 2020, 12(3): 357-373.

URL:     OR

Fig. 1 Location of the Sugan Lake Basin (a), geographical overview of the Sugan Lake Basin (b) and major glacier distribution (c)
Path Date of acquisition Sensor Path Date of acquisition Sensor
136/033 25 Aug 1989 TM 137/033 16 Aug 1989 TM
14 Jul 1991 TM 7 Sep 1991 TM
26 Aug 1995 TM 1 Aug 1995 TM
31 Aug 1997 TM 22 Aug 1997 TM
23 Aug 2000 TM 14 Aug 2000 TM
16 Aug 2003 TM 15 Aug 2003 TM
27 Aug 2007 TM 26 Aug 2007 ETM+
27 Aug 2010 ETM+ 26 Aug 2010 TM
11 Aug 2013 OLI 2 Aug 2013 OLI
2 Jul 2016 OLI 25 Jul 2016 OLI
Table 1 Landsat scenes used in this study
Fig. 2 Flow chart of the algorithm used to extract glacier outline and to divide each glacier. The left panel is implemented using ENVI (Environment for Visualizing Images), and the right panel uses the spatial analysis modules in ArcGIS. SCGI, Second Chinese Glacier Inventory; SWIR, short-wave infrared; FLAASH, Fast Line-of-sight Atmospheric Analysis of Spectral Hypercubes; ROIs, region of interests.
Glacier class (km2) 1989 1997 2007 2016
Number Area (km2) Number Area (km2) Number Area (km2) Number Area (km2)
≤0.1 47 2.2 55 2.9 63 3.5 69 4.2
0.1-0.5 189 39.0 161 37.9 140 35.9 121 33.4
0.5-1.0 85 37.3 81 36.6 64 30.3 55 28.2
1.0-5.0 80 132.5 77 129.5 69 123.5 61 119.3
5.0-10.0 9 56.1 9 55.5 7 48.8 7 45.8
>10.0 7 78.2 7 77.9 6 76.4 6 71.3
In total 417 345.3 390 340.3 350 318.5 318 302.2
Table 2 Glacier number and area of different classes in 1989, 1997, 2007 and 2016
Glacier class
1989-1997 1997-2007 2007-2016 1989-2016
APAC (%/a) APAC (%/a) APAC (%/a) APAC (%/a)
≤0.1 4.4 1.9 2.4 3.5
0.1-0.5 -0.3 -0.5 -0.8 -0.5
0.5-1.0 -0.2 -1.7 -0.8 -0.9
1.0-5.0 -0.3 -0.5 -0.4 -0.4
5.0-10.0 -0.1 -1.2 -0.7 -0.7
>10.0 0.0 -0.2 -0.7 -0.3
In total -0.2 -0.6 -0.6 -0.5
Table 3 Annual percentage of area changes (APAC) of different glacier classes during the period 1989-2016
Fig. 3 Variations in glacier area in the Sugan Lake Basin from 1989 to 2016. The dashed lines indicate the linear trends of glacier area variations in different periods. The slopes represent the variation trends in glacier area, and the R2 values indicate statistical significance. APAC, annual percentage of area changes.
Fig. 4 Variations in temperature, precipitation and statistical index (u) of temperature and precipitation in the glacier-covered areas from 1989 to 2016. (a), variations in mean air temperature of the glacier surfaces in July-August from 1989 to 2016 (the dashed line indicates the linear trend in mean air temperature); (b), variations in annual precipitation of the glacier-covered area from 1989 to 2016 (the dashed line indicates the linear trend in annual precipitation); (c), Mann-Kendall trend test of mean air temperature; (d), Mann-Kendall trend test of annual precipitation.
Fig. 5 Relationships of glacier area with mean air temperature of the glacier surfaces in July-August (a) and annual precipitation in the glacier-covered areas (b). The solid lines indicate the linear trends of glacier area variations with air temperature and precipitation changes.
Fig. 6 Relationships between glacier area and mean air temperature of the glacier surfaces in July-August at seven meteorological stations and in the entire Sugan Lake Basin. The solid lines indicate the linear trends of glacier area variations with air temperature changes.
Fig. 7 Spatial distributions of different temperature ranges of the major glacier surfaces in July-August in 1989 (a) and 2016 (b)
Temperature range (°C) Glacier coverage (%) Temperature range (°C) Glacier coverage (%)
-∞- -3.0 100.00 3.0-4.0 32.30
-3.0- -2.0 97.00 4.0-5.0 14.30
-2.0- -1.0 88.86 5.0-6.0 4.33
-1.0-0.0 83.86 6.0-7.0 0.94
0.0-1.0 77.12 7.0-8.0 0.13
1.0-2.0 66.47 8.0-9.0 0.00
2.0-3.0 51.04 9.0-10.0 0.00
Table 4 Multi-year average glacier coverage distribution in different temperature ranges in the Sugan Lake Basin
Fig. 8 Inter-annual variations of glacier area in the 4700-5500 m a.s.l. elevation zones. The dashed lines indicate the linear trends of glacier area variations.
Fig. 9 Relationships between glacier area and mean air temperature of the glacier surfaces in July-August for each elevation zone. The solid lines indicate the linear trends of glacier area variations with air temperature.
Variable Climate
2046-2065 2081-2100
Mean (°C) Likely range (°C) Mean (°C) Likely range (°C)
Global mean surface
temperature change (°C)
RCP2.6 1.0 0.4-1.6 1.0 0.3-1.7
RCP4.5 1.4 0.9-2.0 1.8 1.1-2.6
RCP6.0 1.3 0.8-1.8 2.2 1.4-3.1
RCP8.5 2.0 1.4-2.6 3.7 2.6-4.8
Table 5 Projected changes in global mean surface air temperature for the middle and late 21st century compared with the period 1986-2005 (IPCC, 2013)
Elevation zone (m a.s.l.) Regression model R2 P value
<4700 A= -0.87T+9.27 0.64 0.005
4700-4900 A= -4.11T+70.83 0.66 0.004
4900-5100 A= -7.32T+166.25 0.74 0.002
5100-5300 A= -4.40T+118.99 0.69 0.003
5300-5500 A= -1.70T+33.05 0.72 0.002
≥5500 A= -0.29T+3.79 0.41 0.047
Entire basin A= -22.38T+378.20 0.69 0.003
Table 6 Regression models of glacier area and mean air temperature of the glacier surfaces in July-August in different elevation zones
Elevation zone (m a.s.l.) Mean air temperature (°C) Glacier area (km2)
<4700 6.10 3.77
4700-4900 5.08 50.78
4900-5100 3.95 138.52
5100-5300 2.92 106.52
5300-5500 1.73 29.75
≥5500 0.44 3.56
Entire basin 1.77 332.89
Table 7 Mean air temperature of the glacier surfaces in July-August and glacier area in different elevation zones during the period 1986-2005
Period Climate
Glacier area (km2)
<4700 m 4700-4900 m 4900-5100 m 5100-5300 m 5300-5500 m ≥5500 m Total Entire basin
2046-2065 RCP2.6 3.09 45.86 130.02 101.74 28.41 3.37 312.49 308.53
RCP4.5 2.74 44.21 127.09 99.98 27.73 3.26 305.01 298.61
RCP6.0 2.83 44.62 127.82 100.42 27.90 3.29 306.88 301.22
RCP8.5 2.22 41.75 122.70 97.34 26.71 3.08 293.80 284.19
RCP2.6 3.09 45.86 130.02 101.74 28.41 3.37 312.49 308.53
RCP4.5 2.39 42.57 124.16 98.22 27.05 3.14 297.53 288.90
RCP6.0 2.05 40.92 121.23 96.46 26.37 3.02 290.06 279.64
RCP8.5 0.74 34.76 110.25 89.86 23.82 2.59 262.02 247.21
Table 8 Results of future glacier area predictions under four climate scenarios
Year Glacier area (km2) Absolute error (km2) Relative error (%)
Landsat data Other data sources
2000 326.4 326.1a 0.3 0.1
2003 335.3 333.8b 1.5 0.4
2007 318.5 317.6c 0.9 0.3
Table 9 Error estimation of glacier area from different data sources
[1]   Andreassen L M, Paul F, Kääb A, et al.2008. Landsat-derived glacier inventory for Jotunheimen, Norway, and deduced glacier changes since the 1930s. The Cryosphere, 2(2): 131-145.
doi: 10.5194/tc-2-131-2008
[2]   Bayr K J, Hall D K, Kovalick W M, 1994. Observations on glaciers in the eastern Austrian Alps using satellite data. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 15(9): 1733-1742.
doi: 10.1080/01431169408954205
[3]   Bolch T, Yao T, Kang S, et al.2010a. A glacier inventory for the western Nyainqentanglha Range and the Nam Co Basin, Tibet, and glacier changes 1976-2009. The Cryosphere, 4(3): 419-433.
doi: 10.5194/tc-4-419-2010
[4]   Bolch T, Menouno B, Wheate R.2010b. Landsat-based inventory of glaciers in western Canada, 1985-2005. Remote Sensing of Environment, 114(1): 127-137.
doi: 10.1016/j.rse.2009.08.015
[5]   Bradley R S, Miller G H.1972. Recent climatic change and increased glacierization in the Eastern Canadian Arctic. Nature, 237: 385-387.
doi: 10.1038/237385a0
[6]   Burn D H, Elnur M A H.2002. Detection of hydrologic trends and variability. Journal of Hydrology, 255(1-4): 107-122.
doi: 10.1016/S0022-1694(01)00514-5
[7]   Cao B, Pan B T, Gao H S, et al.2010. Glacier variation in the Lenglongling range of eastern Qilian Mountains from 1972 to 2007. Journal of Glaciology and Geocryology, 32(2): 242-248. (in Chinese)
[8]   Casassa G, Smith K, Rivera A, et al.2002. Inventory of glaciers in Isla Riesco, Patagonia, Chile, based on aerial photography and satellite imagery. Annals of Glaciology, 34: 373-378.
doi: 10.3189/172756402781817671
[9]   Dowdeswell J A, Hagen J O, Björnsson H, et al.1997. The mass balance of circum-arctic glaciers and recent climate change. Quaternary Research, 48(1): 1-14.
doi: 10.1006/qres.1997.1900
[10]   Duan K Q, Yao T D, Wang N L, et al.2012. Numerical simulation of Urumqi Glacier No. 1 in the eastern Tianshan, Central Asia from 2005 to 2070. Chinese Science Bulletin, 57(36): 3511-3515.
[11]   Dwyer J L.1995. Mapping tide-water glacier dynamics in East Greenland using Landsat data. Journal of Glaciology, 41(139): 584-595.
[12]   Dyurgerov M.2001. Mountain glaciers at the end of the twentieth century: Global analysis in relation to climate and water cycle. Polar Geography, 25(4): 241-336.
[13]   Gan R, Luo Y, Zuo Q T, et al.2015. Effects of projected climate change on the glacier and runoff generation in the Naryn River Basin, Central Asia. Journal of Hydrology, 523: 240-251.
[14]   Guo W Q, Liu S Y, Yu P C, et al.2011. Automatic extraction of ridgelines using on drainage boundaries and aspect difference. Science of Surveying and Mapping, 36(6): 210-212. (in Chinese)
[15]   Hagg W, Braun L N, Kuhn M, et al.2007. Modelling of hydrological response to climate change in glacierized Central Asian catchments. Journal of Hydrology, 332(1-2): 40-53.
[16]   Hall D K, Riggs G A, Salomonson V V.1995. Development of methods for mapping global snow cover using moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer data. Remote Sensing of Environment, 54(2): 127-140.
[17]   Hamed K H.2008. Trend detection in hydrologic data: The Mann-Kendall trend test under the scaling hypothesis. Journal of Hydrology, 349(3-4): 350-363.
[18]   Han H, Yang X H, Zhou J D.2018. A study of glacier information extraction methods based on multi-sensors remote sensing images in the Chongce Glacier area, West Kunlun Mountains. Journal of Glaciology and Geocryology, 40(5): 951-959. (in Chinese)
[19]   Horton P B, Schaefli A, Mezghani B, et al.2006. Assessment of climate-change impacts on alpine discharge regimes with climate model uncertainty. Hydrological Processes, 20(10): 2091-2109.
[20]   IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2013. Climate Change 2013: Synthesis Report. In: Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Geneva, Switzerland.
[21]   Jacobs J D, Alvin S.1997. Recession of the southern part of Barnes Ice Cap, Baffin Island, Canada, between 1961 and 1993, determined from digital mapping of Landsat TM. Journal of Glaciology, 43(143): 98-102.
[22]   Jin Z Z, Qin X, Sun W J, et al.2019. Monthly variations of temperature gradient in glacierized and non-glacierized areas of the western Qilian Mountains. Journal of Glaciology and Geocryology, 41(2): 282-292. (in Chinese)
[23]   Kendall M G.1990. Rank correlation methods. British Journal of Psychology, 25(1): 86-91.
[24]   Kienholz C, Hock R, Arendt A A.2013. A new semi-automatic approach for dividing glacier complexes into individual glaciers. Journal of Glaciology, 59(217): 925-937.
[25]   Kite G W, Reid I A.1977. Volumetric change of the Athabasca Glacier over the last 100 years. Journal of Hydrology, 32(3-4): 279-294.
[26]   Liu S Y, Sun W X, Shen Y P, et al.2003. Glacier changes since the little ice age maximum in the western Qilian Shan, Northwest China, and consequences of glacier runoff for water supply. Journal of Glaciology, 49(164): 117-124.
doi: 10.3189/172756503781830926
[27]   Liu S Y, Yao X J, Guo W Q, et al.2015. The contemporary glaciers in China based on the second Chinese Glacier Inventory. Acta Geographica Sinica, 70(1): 3-16. (in Chinese)
doi: 10.11821/dlxb201501001
[28]   Liu Y, Liu Y C, Jiao K Q, et al.2019. Advances on water resources research in the upper reaches of Urumqi River since 1990. Journal of Glaciology and Geocryology, 41(4): 958-967. (in Chinese)
[29]   Liu Y G, Wang N L, Zhang J H, et al.2019. Climate change and its impacts on mountain glaciers during 1960-2017 in western China. Journal of Arid Land, 11(4): 537-550.
[30]   Ma Z Z, Wang Z Q, Gu Y L, et al.2015. Ecological vulnerability assessment of nature reserve in arid region of Northwest China: A case study of the Xihu Nature Reserve and the Suganhu Nature Reserve in Gansu. Journal of Desert Research, 35(1): 253-259. (in Chinese)
[31]   Mann H B.1945. Nonparametric tests against trend. Econometrica, 13(3): 245-259.
[32]   Mu J X, Li Z Q, Zhang H, et al.2018. The global glacierized area: Current situation and recent change, based on the Randolph Glacier Inventory (RGI 6.0) published in 2017. Journal of Glaciology and Geocryology, 40(2): 238-248. (in Chinese)
[33]   Naz B S, Frans C D, Clarke G K C, et al.2014. Modeling the effect of glacier recession on streamflow response using a coupled glacio-hydrological model. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 18(2): 787-802.
[34]   Nye J F.1960. The response of glaciers and ice-sheets to seasonal and climatic changes. Proceedings of the Royal Society A, 256: 559-584.
[35]   Pan B T, Zhang G L, Wang J, et al.2012. Glacier changes from 1966-2009 in the Gongga Mountains, on the south-eastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and their climatic forcing. The Cryosphere, 6: 1087-1101.
[36]   Paul F.2002. Changes in glacier area in Tyrol, Austria, between 1969 and 1992 derived from Landsat 5 thematic mapper and Austrian glacier inventory data. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 23(4): 787-799.
[37]   Rabatel A, Francou B, Soruco al.2013. Current state of glaciers in the tropical Andes: A multi-century perspective on glacier evolution and climate change. The Cryosphere, 7(1): 81-102.
[38]   Racoviteanu A E, Paul F, Raup B, et al.2009. Challenges and recommendations in mapping of glacier parameters from space: Results of the 2008 Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) workshop, Boulder, Colorado, USA. Annals of Glaciology, 50(53): 53-69.
[39]   Sakai A, Fujita K, Duan K, et al.2006. Five decades of shrinkage of July 1st glacier, Qilian Shan, China. Journal of Glaciology, 52(176): 11-16.
[40]   Shi Y F, Cui Z J, Zheng B X.1982. Discussion on the Ice Age in the Xixiabangma Mountain Peak: Scientific Expeditions Report of the Xixiabangma Mountain Peak. Beijing: Science Press, 155-176. (in Chinese)
[41]   Shi Y F.2000. Glaciers and Their Environments in China: The Present, Past and Future. Beijing: Science Press, 12-16. (in Chinese)
[42]   Shi Y F, Shen Y P, Li D L, et al.2003. Discussion on the present climate change from warm-day to warm-wet in Northwest China. Quaternary Sciences, 23(2): 152-164.
[43]   Shi Y F, Shen Y P, Kang E, et al.2007. Recent and future climate change in Northwest China. Climatic Change, 80: 379-393.
doi: 10.1007/s10584-006-9121-7
[44]   Sidjak R W.1999. Glacier mapping of the Illecillewaet icefield, British Columbia, Canada, using Landsat TM and digital elevation data. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 20(2): 273-284.
[45]   Singh P, Kumar N.1997. Impact assessment of climate change on the hydrological response of a snow and glacier melt runoff dominated Himalayan River. Journal of Hydrology, 193(1-4): 316-350.
[46]   Sorg A, Bolch T, Stoffel M, et al.2012. Climate change impacts on glaciers and runoff in Tien Shan (Central Asia). Nature Climate Change, 2: 725-731.
[47]   Stahl K, Moore R D, Shea J M, et al.2008. Coupled modelling of glacier and streamflow response to future climate scenarios. Water Resources Research, 44(2): 1-13.
[48]   Sun M P, Li Z Q, Yao X J, et al.2013. Rapid shrinkage and hydrological response of a typical continental glacier in the arid region of Northwest China: Taking Urumqi Glacier No.1 as an example. Ecohydrology, 6(6): 909-916.
[49]   Sun M P, Liu S Y, Yao X J, et al.2018. Glacier changes in the Qilian Mountains in the past half-century: Based on the revised First and Second Chinese Glacier Inventory. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 28(2): 206-220.
[50]   Tian H Z, Yang T B, Liu Q P.2014. Climate change and glacier area shrinkage in the Qilian Mountains, China, from 1956 to 2010. Annals of Glaciology, 55(66): 187-197.
[51]   Wang J, Qin X, Li Z L, et al.2017. Glaciers change detection from 2004 to 2015 in the Daxueshan, Qilian MTS. Remote Sensing Technology and Application, 32(3): 490-498. (in Chinese)
[52]   Wang S, Yao T D, Tian L D, et al.2017. Glacier mass variation and its effect on surface runoff in the Beida River catchment during 1957-2013. Journal of Glaciology, 63(239): 523-534.
[53]   Yao T D, Li Z G, Yang W, et al.2010. Glacial distribution and mass balance in the Yarlung Zangbo River and its influence on lakes. Chinese Science Bulletin, 55: 2072-2078.
[54]   Zhou Z H, Han N, Cai J Y, et al.2017. Variation characteristics of glaciers and their response to climate change in the Qilian Mountains: Take the Suganhu Basin as an example. Journal of Glaciology and Geocryology, 39(6): 1172-1179. (in Chinese)
[55]   Zhu G F, Qin D H, Ren J W, et al.2017. Assessment of perception and adaptation to climate-related glacier changes in the arid rivers basin in northwestern China. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 133: 243-252.
[1] ZHAO Xuqin, LUO Min, MENG Fanhao, SA Chula, BAO Shanhu, BAO Yuhai. Spatiotemporal changes of gross primary productivity and its response to drought in the Mongolian Plateau under climate change[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2024, 16(1): 46-70.
[2] Mitiku A WORKU, Gudina L FEYISA, Kassahun T BEKETIE, Emmanuel GARBOLINO. Projecting future precipitation change across the semi-arid Borana lowland, southern Ethiopia[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2023, 15(9): 1023-1036.
[3] QIN Guoqiang, WU Bin, DONG Xinguang, DU Mingliang, WANG Bo. Evolution of groundwater recharge-discharge balance in the Turpan Basin of China during 1959-2021[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2023, 15(9): 1037-1051.
[4] MA Jinpeng, PANG Danbo, HE Wenqiang, ZHANG Yaqi, WU Mengyao, LI Xuebin, CHEN Lin. Response of soil respiration to short-term changes in precipitation and nitrogen addition in a desert steppe[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2023, 15(9): 1084-1106.
[5] ZHAO Xiaohan, HAN Dianchen, LU Qi, LI Yunpeng, ZHANG Fangmin. Spatiotemporal variations in ecological quality of Otindag Sandy Land based on a new modified remote sensing ecological index[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2023, 15(8): 920-939.
[6] Orhan DENGİZ, İnci DEMİRAĞ TURAN. Soil quality assessment for desertification based on multi-indicators with the best-worst method in a semi-arid ecosystem[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2023, 15(7): 779-796.
[7] ZHANG Hui, Giri R KATTEL, WANG Guojie, CHUAI Xiaowei, ZHANG Yuyang, MIAO Lijuan. Enhanced soil moisture improves vegetation growth in an arid grassland of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2023, 15(7): 871-885.
[8] ZHANG Zhen, XU Yangyang, LIU Shiyin, DING Jing, ZHAO Jinbiao. Seasonal variations in glacier velocity in the High Mountain Asia region during 2015-2020[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2023, 15(6): 637-648.
[9] GAO Xiang, WEN Ruiyang, Kevin LO, LI Jie, YAN An. Heterogeneity and non-linearity of ecosystem responses to climate change in the Qilian Mountains National Park, China[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2023, 15(5): 508-522.
[10] Reza DEIHIMFARD, Sajjad RAHIMI-MOGHADDAM, Farshid JAVANSHIR, Alireza PAZOKI. Quantifying major sources of uncertainty in projecting the impact of climate change on wheat grain yield in dryland environments[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2023, 15(5): 545-561.
[11] Sakine KOOHI, Hadi RAMEZANI ETEDALI. Future meteorological drought conditions in southwestern Iran based on the NEX-GDDP climate dataset[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2023, 15(4): 377-392.
[12] Mehri SHAMS GHAHFAROKHI, Sogol MORADIAN. Investigating the causes of Lake Urmia shrinkage: climate change or anthropogenic factors?[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2023, 15(4): 424-438.
[13] ZHANG Yixin, LI Peng, XU Guoce, MIN Zhiqiang, LI Qingshun, LI Zhanbin, WANG Bin, CHEN Yiting. Temporal and spatial variation characteristics of extreme precipitation on the Loess Plateau of China facing the precipitation process[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2023, 15(4): 439-459.
[14] LONG Yi, JIANG Fugen, DENG Muli, WANG Tianhong, SUN Hua. Spatial-temporal changes and driving factors of eco- environmental quality in the Three-North region of China[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2023, 15(3): 231-252.
[15] Adnan ABBAS, Asher S BHATTI, Safi ULLAH, Waheed ULLAH, Muhammad WASEEM, ZHAO Chengyi, DOU Xin, Gohar ALI. Projection of precipitation extremes over South Asia from CMIP6 GCMs[J]. Journal of Arid Land, 2023, 15(3): 274-296.